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Full text of "Amstrad NC100 Notebook Computer (1993)(Amstrad)"

http://amstrad.cpc.free.fr 



Letter from the Chairman of Amstrad 



Dear New Customer 

I am first of all delighted to welcome you to the world of Amstrad, 
with your purchase of this new Notepad computer. 

This product is known inside our company as my "BRBY". The 
background to its inception stemmed from my personal desire to 
be able to use a computer. 

Yes - I am embarrassed to say that, as the Chairman of one of 
Europe's largest manufacturers of computers, I have never been 
able to use one! A while ago I called a meeting with some of my 
engineering staff and explained that I wanted us to make a simple 
to use computer. I explained that I am not interested in knowing 
what's inside the machine and what the specification of the 
machine is. I just want a machine that is simple to operate and 
understand. 

After many months of development and many meetings in which I 
was asked to give my opinion on the simplicity of its operation, 
this product evolved as what I perceive to be the first of a long 
line of a new generation of simple to use computers. 

Although the Notepad is very simple to use, it should not be 
underestimated. I decided to write the first section (Section 1) 
of this instruction book to cover very simply the main functions 
for the first time novice user. The second section of the book 
has been written by the "BOFFINS" and uncovers a vast world of 
the machine's operation. If you still have any problems in 
understanding the Notepad, see page 215 for details of our 
telephone hotline support. 

I am sure that if you have never used a computer before that once 
you have started to use the Notepad, you will be delighted with 
the results - so remember that it was AMSTRAD that put you in 
touch with the world of computing. 

If you are delighted with your new skills, please show them off 
and recommend a friend or colleague. Help us to make AMSTRAD the 
entry-level computer standard. 

Yours sincerely 




Alan Sugar 
chairman 



SECTION 1 



The best way to follow this 
section is to read a bit and 
then do a bit! Have the 
machine in front of you and 
read carefully step-by-step. 

Take your time. 



Setting Up 



Unpack the box and check you have the following items: 




NOTEPAD BAG 4 BATTERIES MAINS THIS 

COMPUTER < S^S^^^f ADAPTOR BOOK 



PLEASE FILL OUT THE WARRANTY CARD AND SEND IT OFF. 

This will enable us to mail you from time to time on updates and 
•ovements to your new Notepad. 

PLEASE KEEP ALL PACKAGING MATERIALS - BOX, STYROFOAM ETC IN 
CASE YOU NEED TO TRANSPORT YOUR UNIT. 



to set up the Notepad, turn the unit face down and pull the white 
plastic film so that it comes COMPLETELY out of the Notepad. 



Pull out while plastic tab. 





Remove the main battery cover and insert the four batteries, as 
shown below: 




Put the battery cover bock on and turn the Notepad tace up so 
you can see the keyboard and screen. Then press the POWER ON 
key (top right corner of the Notepad}. See diagram below. 




Power on key. 

■■ ■ ■i ii « y *. . ! " i| -"Mi. w rn^ 



(Right edge) 
Brightness control 



/ 



The machine should make a 'bleeping' sound and the screen will 
come on. 

The screen display should be as below. If not. adjust the Brightness 
control ( right-hand edge of the Notepad): 




Esamimus^mmtsmHKtMm&i-i-'K-r-m^m 



Set trie t me 

. . iSS t+ tO i 
Pr*»» •> unen 

Press Step to exit 



Press t+ to'oijust the hoi*- 
i Finished 



Hour Minutes 



Date Month Year 



To set today's time and date, turn to the next page. 

2 



On the left of the screen you will see a small dark section over the 
two zeros 00, these are the hour digits. 

Set today"s current hour by pressing the up or down keys LXJ EE 
(you will use these keys many times in Mure so remember them). 
Watch the screen while you are pressing the keys. 




Up 
Down 





■ 


1 1 ' 









«_|K«y 



The Notepad is set 
to operate as a 24 
hour clock. So, tor 
example, set 5pm 
as 17 or 9am as 09. 



.ocate the tL] key (you will use this key many times in future so 
remember itl ) See diagram above and press it ONCE ONLY. 

The small dark section is now over the minutes digits so use the 'Tl 
i keys to set the minutes. Watch the screen while you are doing 
* Once you have set the minutes, press the tL : key. 

small dark section is now over the date digit, so use the CD (D 
«eys to enter in today's date in the month, Once you have set this. 
5 the E key. 

"he small dark section is now over the month section, now use the 
T 3D keys to select this month, once you have selected this 
T>onth, press the BJ key. 

"*^e small dark section is now over the year digits, now use the CB 
i keys to select this year. Once you have selected this year, press 
j : key. 



f VOU MAKE A MISTAKE. PRESS THE KEY MARKED MENU (NEXT TO 
"HE RED KEY). THEN PRESS THE BLUE KEY 6 TIMES. THEN START 
AGAIN. TO ADJUST THE TIME DUE TO SUMMER/WINTER ONE HOUR 
CHANGES, SEE SYSTEM SETTINGS. 

I you have any problems, see page 215 for details of our 
'elephone support 






CONGRATULATIONS! 

- Vou have now set up your Notepad. 
This is how the screen should now look: 



if you are not in Britain 
turn to page 62 ^ 



This area shows 
today & date 



This area shows 
today's time 



■■:i^wi:.(ir.'i 



*j*^^m^^*~** 



To use the 
UOID PRtCFSSMt 

Press 
YELLOU ■* BED 



i=_ 



nan 
nan 



To use th* 

c*i cut »roR 



Pro 
YELLOW I 



fflEEH 



DJBRf / CLOCK 
ADDRESS MtiK 

yellou's'blue 



Using the Notepad with the Mains Adaptor 

When you use the Notepad at home or at work, we recommend 
you use it with the Mains Adaptor provided. Simply plug the 
Mains Adaptor into any 240V 1 3 Amp wall socket and plug the 
lead into the back of the Notepad. Place the Notepad close to 
the socket to avoid unnecessary strain on the lead. 




NEVER use other power adaptors - only use the Mains Adaptor 
suDDlied with the Notepad. 



When you have finished using the Notepad, we recommend the 
adaptor is removed from the wall socket and the cable is 
removed from the rear of the Notepad. 



4 



NOW THE CLEVER STUFF! 

Using the Notepad 



"ne first thing to do is to familiarise yourself with the six most 
commonly used keys, 

'hese keys will be referred to throughout this section of the book 
as: 




STOP 



GREEN 



n some cases you will be asked to press both the Yellow and Red 
<eys, or the Yellow and Green keys or Yellow and Blue keys. The best 
*ay to do this is to press and hold down the Yellow key first with 
one finger followed by the other coloured key with another finger. 

After pressing the POWER ON key any time in the future, you will 
generally return back to the screen shown below. There are three 
-tain function areas or sections. We shall refer to this in future as the 

MAIN SCREEN. 







tMt£»ptro>«Ma 


r-i 


To us© the 
UORD PROCESSOR 

Press 
YELLOW $ RED 




5jH 

E3E3E3 
E3E3E3 
E3E3E3 
E3E3E3 


To use the 
CALCULATOR 

Press 
YELLOW £ GREEN 




[{dim-* 


To us© the 
BIRR? / CLOCK 
ADDRESS BOOK 

Press 
YELLOW & BLUE 






Is 


1 s 





















■■— ■ WJ ^ 



To use the Calculator 

Most of us know how to use a calculator. As this is an easy function 
for most of us to understand, we shall start with this section first of 



Do as the main screen says - press the Yellow and Green keys AT 

THE SAME TIME. 



Use the GREEN numbers on the keyboard 
Press Stop to exit 



n 
u. 



As you can see from the new screen message above, you are 
invited to use the green numbers/characters on the keyboard. To 
use the calculator, use only the keys with green characters. No 

others will have any effect. 




We assume you are familiar with the functions of a calculator and 
so we have no more to say in this section other than to advise you 
how to get back to the main screen. When you have finished using 
the calculator, simply press the 3 key (top left corner ). 



If you leave the Notepad switched on without using the 
keyboard for more than five minutes, it will automatically switch 
off. Simply press the power key and the screen will return. 



Using the Word Processor 



For those of you who have used a typewriter or computer before 
we apologise now for boring you. Throughout this section of the 
book we are assuming the user is a novice. 



After returning to the main screen or switching on the Notepad 
again the main screen will appear. 






To use the 
WORD PROCESSOR 



Press 
YELLOIJ * REO 



To us© the 
CALCULATOR 



Press 
YELLOW S GREEN 



To use the 
DIARY / CLOCK 
ADDRESS BOOK 

Press 
YELLOW « BLUE 



To use the word processor section simply follow the instructions on 
the screen and press the Yellow and Red keys, 

T his operation will bring you to a new screen as below: 



„ am mam „um-mm^ 


M 


STRRT D NEW 
BOCUHENT 

Press 

RED 






LIST STORED 
DOCUMENTS 

Press 
GREEN 






PRINT 
DOCUMENT 

Press 

BLUE 

















~-^e first message on the left is to start a new document, so we will 
j>e this first of ail and ignore the other two messages for the 
-moment. Follow the instructions and press the Red key ONLY, 



After pressing the Red key, the next screen (as shown below ) will 
invite you to give the new document/letter a name. The reason for 
giving it a name is so you can identify it amongst a list of many 
documents you will produce in the future, 




Follow the instructions and give the document a name by typing it 
in. For example, let's call this document first, Simply type in 
first by pressing the F I R S and T keys on the main keyboard 
and press the SJ key ( REMEMBER WE TOLD YOU YOU WILL USE 

THIS KEY A LOT). 

As you will see from the new screen below, the dark line at the top 
shows the Document Name, and also that you are on page 1 . 




In the left corner on the second line you will see a rectangular 
shaped block flashing on and off. This item is called a CURSOR, 
Remember the word CURSOR - we will refer to it many times in the 

future, 

You will also see the message: 

<- Start typing new text here 

As soon as you hit any key this message will go away. 



Before we go any further you will need to learn some simple 
principles to do with typing. ( For those who already know it all - 
SORRY. ) 



Press the G3 key five Hm«dtt)e-w# see-fhe cursor motKHdewrr 
the screen. 

Now locate the keys shown below: 




As you will see, they all have 
arrows on them, pointing in 
different directions. 

Press the Green key four times 
and you will see the cursor move 
to the right. 



Now press the CD key four times and you will see the cursor move 
up the screen. 

Now press the Red 6=) key four times and you will see the cursor 
move to the left. 

Finally, press the Blue CD key four times and you will see the cursor 
move down the screen. 

f you imagine a cluster of arrow keys as shown below the cursor 
will move in the direction of the arrow you press. 




Now type In the foflowingt- 

amstrad 

. ou will see the cursor Is flashing at the end of the word. 

. ocate the B Q keys shown below ( top right corner ). 




DELCTF). 

Press the Red @ key four times ond you will see the cursor is now 

over the letter a 

Now press the S key four times and you wiil see the remaining four 

letters are deleted. 

**«♦ ,-,ii totters l EFT of the cursor will be 

as^^s"S2g£ hi ' ,,8H ' B ' ,h '"" 

will be deleted when you press the L J key. 

Now type in the word: 

amstrad 

Then locate the large bar at the bottom of the keyboard as shown 

below ( This is known as the space oar ). 




Press the bar once and you will see the cursor Jump to the right oi 

the word amstrad. 

Now type in: 

Notepad 

You will see the two words are now spaced apart. 

Any time you wish to space words apart, simply use the space ba 

Now you have experienced these features it's time to write yo L 

first document. 



10 



Press the Q key and hoftf It dowri to - elearlh&'sereen. 
Now off you go - DO IT! 



'. hy don't you type in:- 

rhis is the first time i have ever used a computer 

ou will now see the CURSOR flashing at the end of your sentence. 
" <ow press the ED key (you must remember this key by now! ) and 
"ow type in:- 

—.is is the second line of the first document i have ever written on a 

■ on^mter 

-s you can see, what you have written on the second line was too 
-uch for one line and it has overlapped onto the third line. 

• .ow press the Q key (top left corner). 

CONGRATULATIONS! 

- you have written your first document on a computer. 

"3 write a second document, press the Red key and once again 
.oe in a name for the second document, Let's call this one 
second. Don't forget to press the &J key (that key again!) 

■ 2w type the following; 

: seem to be getting good at this now 

ce again press the tU key. 
. :wtype: 

■. have noticed there are no capital letters in 
-y sentences 



11 



It is true - so far everything you have- written is in lower case letters 

(Boffin talk for non capital letters). On the keyboard locate the keys 
shown in the diagram below. These are known as the SHIFT keys. 




Shift 




Press the G3 key. 

Now hold down either of the above shift keys with one finger and 

type the following with another finger: 

THIS LINE IS ALL IN UPPER CASE 

(Upper Case is Boffin talk for Capital letters) 
Press the key again, 

This time type in the following sentence but put capital letters 
(upper case) and lower case letters where they are expected to 
be Do this by holding down a SHIFT CTZ) kevonly when you wish 
to type a capital letter, and release the SHIFT E_J key when you 

type lower case letters. 

Now I am getting quite good on this Notepad 

Press the E"J key again. 

Look at the dark line at the top of the screen and you will see it 

Says Press STOP to finish or print. 

It should be noted at this time that the B key (top left corner) 

is going to be a very good friend to you. as pressing it will always 

take you out of what you are doing and back to the previous 

screen. 

So press S now. then press it again. You will see you are now 

back at the original main screen. 



12 



Mow press"Ye¥6w^^T?e3^df^1wf^''Whie). As you win seeTydu" 

3re back to the second screen in the word processing section. You 
-ave used the Red key message to the left to write two documents 
2nd we have so far ignored the other two messages. 



. e will now explore the middle message so press the Green key as 

asks. 



-e screen shows a list of the two documents you have written. 
: cate the CO CD keys (bottom right corner). 

-. , pressing the Blue CD key you will see the dark band move from 
-•e word first onto the word second. 

?., pressing the CE key once you will see the dark band move back 
■; the word first. If you have lots more documents in the 
vOtepad you can move the dark band up and down this screen 

■.m the CtJ CD keys to locate on any of your document names, 



~e dark band is now over the word first so press the LdJ key 
,es - me again!) and you will see your first document appear. 
vow press the S key ( life saver ) and you will come back to 

~e second word processor screen. 

-ess the Green key again and this time move the dark band down 
.er the word second by using the Blue CD key and then press 
~e 3 key and you will see your second document appear. 

--ess the Blue CD key four times and read on. 

Some Useful Tips 

. : *j you can practise writing a new document. After reading these 

■os. go back to page 7 and do it all again, but this time write what 

:-j want, call the documents what you want and generally find 



13 



your way around these areas, Remember/the Q key wW brihg 
you out to the previous screen message, 

One other tip to remember is that by using our good old friend the 
PI key you can skip lines and space out your sentences in any 
document you wish to write. For example, as soon as you get into 
the new document section where the cursor is flashing in the corner 

and you Ore invited tO <r- start typing new text here V0U 

can press the tQ key a few times first. This will mean that when 
you finally print out your document the writing will not start right at 
the top of the page/paper. Similarly, after you have typed in a few 
lines, if you want to space the next paragraph away from the first, 
you can use the [-=±1 key. Try it now! 

Another useful tip is if you wish to type everything in capital letters 
and you don't want to hold your finger on the SHIFT key all of the 
time, simply press the key marked CAPS LOCK once ( third from 
the bottom on the left ) and everything you type will appear in 
upper case letters (capitals ). 

To get back to normal lower case use Just press the E^3ED key 

once again. 

The final tip is to advise you how to use the characters which are 
printed above the number keys on the top row of the keyboard, or 
indeed how to use any character that is printed on the top of a 

key. 



These can be used by pressing the SHIFT key with one finger and 
pressing the character you wish to use with another finger. 

For example, let's say you wish to use the & sign, which is located 
above the figure 7 on the- top row of the keyboard. Simply hold 
down the SHIR key with one finger and press the &/7 key with 
another. Do this a few times, Now release the SHIFT key and press 
the &/7 key again and you will see it prints i. Holding down a SHIFT 
il_D key makes another key print the character shown on its top 
section. 
Now press the Q key twice to exit to the main screen. 

14 



If you leave the Notepad switched on without using the 
keyboard for more than five minutes, it wiii automatically switch 
off. Simply press the power key and the screen will return. 



So far the instructions you have been given for the word processor 
section have been very basic. There are many other functions and 
wonderful things that can be done within this section. All of the 

features of the word processor are explained in greater detail in 
the second section of this book. 

If you have any problems, see page 215 for details of our telephone 

hotline support. 



Using the Spellchecker Dictionary 

Inside the micro chips and memory of this machine there is a 48,000 
word dictionary and function which allows you to check if you have 
spelt words correctly. This facility also allows you to spell a word 
correctly whilst you are in the middle of writing a document, 

lo demonstrate the spellchecker and dictionary function, return to 
the main screen by pressing the Q key. As usual press the Yellow 
and Red keys together, followed once again by the Red key only 
and type in the name of this new document spell and press the 
_dJ key. 

Now type in the text shown below, which as you can see has many 
spelling mistakes. Please type it in exactly as you see it below and 

do not alter it at all. 



© are going to uiritte a memo with del I iberate mistakkes so that ue 
-.on use the spel I checker. Ue ore also going to urite in a word which 
■■■ot only is, spelt wrong but is actually the IefPt word ue mean to use 

n this part i cu lor sentence written on the HC100.B 



15 



Now place one finger on tHe Yefbw' key and press the T key iocateo F 
next to the @ key. You will now see the screen as shown below. 



nre aoinq tn maia-E o memo uith del ! iberate mj&tukkes 
can use the spelTehecker. We are also, going to write in a 
™t only i I iplt wrong but is actual !y .the efTt uord ue 
in this particular sentence urttten on the NCtiM. 



paun 

Se I eot opt 1 on 
L - Lookup word; 
S - Store word, 
I - Ignore uord: 
£ - Edit uord: I 



On the right-hand side of the screen you will see the word 
writte highlighted in a dark bar. On the left-hand side of the 
screen you can see the same word writte also highlighted. This 
is the first mistake in your document, What the spellchecker is doing 
is asking you a list of questions which can be seen on the right-hand 
side of the screen. 



je I ect opt i on 
L - Lookup uord, 
S - Store uord/ 
I - Ignore uord: 
E - Edit uord: I 



Obviousfy this Is an Incorrectly spelt word and the first question l 
invites you to look up a word which you meant to use. Therefore 
press the letter L on the keyboard. As soon as you press the letter L 
you will see on the right-hand side of the screen that the Notepad 
is looking for words which are similar but spelt correctly and as you 
can ^e from the display below, the Notepad has given you a 
choice of three words which it thinks you really meant to use. 



|U n^'c nnma tn miMtiti a memo' u i th del I iberate mistakkes 
can use the spelTcKecler. He. are also going tg uirite I no 
not only is spelt urong but is actual iy the ef Ft uord ue 
in this par t i cu I ar sentence uritten on the HC1B0, 



Press ♦**■ to select 
Press Stop to exit 



i^r ttten 
ur ite 



Obviously we meant to use the word write. By using the Blue LU 
key you can move the dark bar down onto the word write. Once 
you have done this press the Ld] key, You will notice on the 
left-hand side of the screen in your document the word write 



16 



has been cdtectecflMt' & new>-tT©<&reciiy -spelt word has been 
found. 

Once again press the letter L to look up the word. As you will see, 
the Notepad has found the correct spelling of the word 
deliberate. Once again press the &L) key. You will see the word 
deliberate has been corrected in your document and the 
Notepad has found another spelling mistake. Once again, press the 
L key and as you will see, the Notepad again finds the correct 
spelling so press the key again to correct the word in your 
document. 

You will now see from the diagram below that the Notepad has 

Stopped on the word spellchecker. 







can use the CTTlinitaiCT He are also going to unite in a 
not only is spelt wrong but is actually the let-ft uord ue 
in this particular sentence written on the NC100. 


Se I ect opt i on 
L - Lookup word, 
S - Store uord, 
I - Ignore uord: 
E - Edit uord: ■ 





You may be wondering why it has stopped on this word, as clearly 
it seems to be spelt correctly. The reason for this is that spellchecker 
is not really a word usually found in a dictionary. It is a name given 
to something, similar to your own name or your company's name 
which, of course, you would not expect to find in a dictionary. 
However, the dictionary inside the Notepad will always stop on 
*hings that it cannot recognise, Two of the questions on the 
'ight-hand side of the screen; s - store word or i - ignore 
word can be used in these circumstances. If the word spellchecker 
s something very common to you and you are always going to use 
t in your documents in the future, then what you can do is to store 
t in the memory of the Notepad so that if you ever use it again the 
Notepad dictionary will ignore it if it is spelt correctly. 

.et us in this instance decide to store the word spellchecker in the 
dictionary for future use. Press the letter S. The word spellchecker 
nas now been stored in the dictionary, if you ever use it again in 
one of your documents it will be ignored if spelt correctly. This 
'acility is very useful if you are going to use a name or term many 
-imes in your documents which is not normally found In a dictionary. 



17 



As you will see, the speilchecker has now found another Incorrectly 
spelt word ( ief f t ). However, when we wrote this sentence we 
did not really mean to use this word. Not only is it spelt incorrectly 
but it is not the word we wanted to use. In this case you can use 
the question on the right-hand side e - Edit word. Press the E 
key. As you will see the cursor is now at the end of the word ief ft. 
By using the B key, delete the whole word ief ft and then type 
in the word wrong, then press the key. 

Finally, you will now see that the Notepad has found nc TOO. The 
reason is obvious - this is the prefix of a model number of the 
Notepad and no-one would expect to find this in a dictionary. You 
may decide that you wish to refer to this prefix many times in future 
documents that you write, in which case you can decide to store 
it in the dictionary by pressing the S key as we did before with the 
word speilchecker. However, it is unlikely that you would wish to use 
a model number such as this again and therefore you can simply 
advise the Notepad's speilchecker to ignore it by pressing the i - 
ignore word. As you will see, after pressing I, the Notepad's 
speilchecker has completely checked the entire document. 

As usual, press S to exit and press H again to return to the 

main screen. 



If you have any problems, see page 215 for details of our 

telephone support 



Using the Speilchecker to assist you in spelling a 
word correctly whilst writing a document. 

It is annoying sometimes when you are writing to find that you have 
forgotten how to spell a certain word. The next demonstration will 
show you how to use the Notepad's speilchecker to assist you in 
finding the correct spelling of a word whilst you are writing a 
document. 

Starting from the main screen, press the Yellow and. Red keys 
together, followed by the Red key only. Type in a name for the new 

document; let us use howspell, then press the L^J key as usual. 



18 



Type in the following text: 

The library has many versions of the encyclopaedia 

=or those clever ones amongst us, you will see from the above that 
vve have indeed spelt the word encyclopaedia correctly. There 
are, however, those of us that are not so confident in our ability to 
soeli correctly. With the cursor flashing at the end of the word 
encyclopaedia hold down the Control key with one finger (the 
Control key is next to the Yellow key on the bottom row of the 
keyboard ) and press the 1 key (next to the S key ) and you 
<V jH S ee that the top ( dark ) line of the screen states - word is in 
dictionary. This means that the word is spelt correctly and, 
•nerefore, you can simply carry on typing. 

\ow carry on typing and add the following (exactly, do not alter y- 

There does not seem to be enough space to 
accomodate 

3nce again, for those of us who are not so sure, the word 
accomodate may be spelt incorrectly. With the cursor flashing at 
-e end of the word accomodate hold down the Control key with 
:->e finger and press the figure 1 key. As you will see from the 
:reen, the word has been picked up by the Notepad's 
:oellchecker as incorrect. Simply press the letter L to look up the 
rorrect spelling of the word, When the Notepad has found the 
-orrect spelling of the word, press the El key, The word 
•ecommodate has now been corrected and you are able to 
: ontinue typing the rest of your document. 

-5 usual, press the W key to exit and press the E3 key again 
■o return to the main screen. 

,',e suggest that you experiment in this area and we are sure that 
. ou will find the spellchecker section a great help in the future use 
:f this product. 



19 



STEP 16: 



'Srf3f.-fSrt.yT 



How to print out your Documents 

The matter of printing out documents can become very 
complicated and is covered in much more detail in the second 
section of this book ( page 99 ). This may be obvious, but we'll say 
it anyway ( Sorry). To print a document you need a printer. 

These days, most printers have a socket on the back of them 
named PARALLEL. 

You will see on the back of the Notepad that it also has a PARALLEL 

socket, 




With the Notepad switched off the first thing to do is to connect 

the Parallel socket on the Notepad to the Parallel socket on the 
printer with a cable ( known as a printer cable, usually included 
with a printer ). 

To progress any further the next advice is maybe also obvious but 
we will say it anyway! SORRY AGAIN. 

Make sure the printer is switched on with paper in it and it is set up 
ready to print, according to the manufacturer's instructions. 

Once connected to the printer press the Notepad's POWER ON 
key. 

Then press the Yellow and Red keys, followed by the Blue key and 
your list of stored documents will appear as you will see from the 

screen below: 




Using the IT] LD keys, move the dark band over the document you 

wish to print and press the 13 key. 



20 



Your document will now print out on the printer; ' 

Press the B key twice to return to the main screen. 



GENERAL NOTE 

One of the virtues of the Notepad is that it is portable. This means 
you can take it with you wherever you go. In most offices or 
hotels in Britain or, indeed, anywhere in the world, printers are 
used. When visiting you can simply plug the Notepad into most 

printers and print out what you want there and then, 

IF YOU HAVE A PROBLEM PRINTING WE SUGGEST YOU CALL OUR 
HOTLINE. SEE PAGE 215. 



Using the Diary/Clock /Address Book Section 

So far we have used the word processor and calculator section on 
the main screen. 



To use the 
UORD PROCESSOR 



Press 
YELLOW & RED 



HiEflM I 






To use the 
CALCULATOR 



Press 
YELLOW i GREEN 



To use the 
DIARV / CLOCK 
ADDRESS BOOK 

Press 
YELLOW « BLUE 



Mow we will explore the other section on the main screen, the 

Diary/Clock/Address Book section. 

As directed by the main screen, press the Yellow and Blue keys. You 
»vill now see the new screen as shown below. 



To use the 
ADDRESS BWK 



Press 
RED 



To use the „ 
CALENMR/DIARy 



Press 

GREEN 



To use the 
TIME MANAGER 



Press 
BLUE 



21 



Using the Address Book ; '" oM: ^ 

You will notice that the new screen is broken up again into three 

main sections. For the purpose of this exercise we will concentrate 
first of ail on the Address Book section. The Notepad has a section 
within it that allows you to store names and addresses, telephone 
numbers, fax numbers, and car phone numbers of all your 
associates, relatives, companies etc. 



Press the Red key as indicated. You will see from the display below 
the new screen which should be considered as a blank page in 
your address book. 



M | | hi II ■ I | l| 
Nam? iSil 

Address : : ii?.J 



Te I ephone 
Fax 



Bdd/Edit address 
Press t* to move 
Press Stop to exit 



As you will see, the dark cursor is positioned in the top left-hand 
corner of the page next to the section marked Name. Let us now 
enter an example name and address so follow these instructions. 

With the cursor in the top right-hand corner, type in: 
Amstrad pic 

and press the (3 key 

Now type in: 

169 Kings Road 

and press the (3 key 

Now type in: ; 

Brentwood 

and press the 13 key 



22 



Now type In: ;-\r* • ■ -.■■ .-- .-. ■- ~. x .-■■■ ■,■ ■;■ 

Essex CM14 4EF 

and press the ED key again. 

You will notice that the cursor is now sitting under the e of Essex. 
Press the ED key again. You will now see the cursor is in line with 

the word Telephone. 

Now type in: 
0891 808181 

and press the Ell key. 
Now type in 
0277 211350 



As you will see, the cursor is now at the end of the fax telephone 
number. 

Vou have now entered your first name and address in the address 
oook section. Press the @ key twice which will return you to the 

second screen of the Diary/Clock/Address Book section. 



Now press the Red key again. 

As you will see from the screen display below, on the right-hand 
side there is a list of questions. Across the question Browse you 
.vill see a dark band. By using the ft] L4J keys you can move this 
dark band up and down. By using the JtJ key, move the dark 
oand to the top item a - Add new address and press the ED 
<ey. 



Address 



Telephone 
Fox 



. ..nJtradf^T^^^ 
169 Kings Rood 
Brentwood 
Essex CHI 4 4EF 

8891 808181 
6277 211350 



(B)dd New Address 
(Eld it Address 
(F)ind Address 
IPIelete Address 



23 



As vou will see, you will turn to the next blank page in your address 
book in order to explain to you the full features of the Address Book 
we will need to type in four more names and addresses. When 
typinq, remember all the keys which you usedjn the word processor 
section such as rS , SHIFT, Spacebar, ^. , have the same 
function in the address book. So if you make mistakes or need 
upper or lower case, use the keys as you would in the word 
processor section, 



STEP 20: 



Now type in the following ( COPY THEM EXACTLY ). Remember, 
when you are at the end of a line, to press the ..-". key. 

John Smith 
1000 High Street 
Braintree 
Essex CM7 8QN 

0222 215555 Car Phone 0850 555123 
0222 215556 

The cursor is now at the end of the fax telephone number. Press 
the i Jj" i< ey and you will see that once you have filled up a full 
page of the Address Book by pressing the ..d. key you will move 
on to the next page. 

Now type in: 

Brian Layer 

The Essex Brick Co Ltd 

Old Kiln Works 

Chelmsford 

Essex CM0 7DY 

0245 123456 

0245 789000 

As you are now at the bottom of another page in your Address 
Book, press the ^ key to bring you to the top of a new page. 



24 



Vow type in: 

Doctor Jones 

The Medical Centre 

High Street 

Southend on Sea 

Essex SS3 9QY 

0702 987654 Emergency No 0702 133444 

0702 123456 

■'■s the cursor is now at the end of the page press the '— '. key 
■. nich will once again take you to the top of the next page Now 
,oe in: 

Star Garage 
Chi 1 tern Works 
3reen Street 
Basildon 
Essex SS15 6DU 

)268 515151 Ask for PETER BROWN 

^268 121212 



-q cursor is now at the end of the fax telephone number. Press 
' \ to exit, 

.a have now entered a total of five names and addresses. As you 
see from the screen below, the last entry is showing on the 
- een. 



Sit or* Gorog^^^ 
Chi I tern fiorki 

Green ■Street 
Eos i I don 
Es-sew SSI 5 6DU 
B26S 515151 
8268 121 £12 



I ■■■'.'■ V.M I 



flsk fjr PETER BR0HN 



(Bldd Men Address 
CEldit nddres.5 
l' F 1 i nd Bddres.s 
( D j ~ I ete Mdress 



■., will also notice that the dark band on the right- hand side is 
.3' the word Browse. By using the Red or Green keys you can 
Dwse through the list of names and addresses you have in the 
: dress Book, 



25 



Press the Red key now and you will see it will take you to one of the 
other names in me Address Book. Press it again and again and it 
will take you through all the addresses that we have put in the 
Address Book. 

Pressing the Green key will do exactly The same but in the reverse 
order. 

As you can see from the right of the screen, there are five different 
facilities j n the Address Book section. One of the most interesting is 
the faci!ity_Find Address. To get into me Find Address section 
use the !_1\ key oy moving the aark band on to Find Address 
and press the ..* J _. key. 

As you will see from the screen below, you are invited to type in 
the address or the name that you wish to find, 



^a I I lil I I ■ I I I ^^M^^^^^^^M^MMTTiT^iWil liM ■■ HM H M 



En-er text '. i F' rd nrd pr 



"h:s is cn excellent facility, As you know, when you are thinking 
about somebody or some company there are certain things that 
you remember them by. You cannot for example, remember their 
address. You cannot remember in some cases -heir full name You 
cannot remember in some cases their telephone number The 
screen above allows vou to type n whatever you can remember 
about tie Address 3ook entry you are trying to find. 

Let us for example say that we are trying t G fnd the address book 
entry of 'he local garcge. All we can remember is that the garage 
is in Chiitem Works. _ ype in chiitern works and then press the 
.- i ' J Key. As you w II see tne Notepad will immediately take you to 
the address book en + ry of the Stcr Garage. 

Now iet us t-y another example Let us say we wish to find the 
telephone number of Amstrad but we can only remember the 
name Amstrad. Once again move the dark band over Find 
Address and press the '.-*. key. You will see the name 
chiitem works is sill on the screen. Ignore this and simply type 
in Amstrad. You will see now mat the old message chiitem 
works i-'Cs aone end Amstrad is now on tne screen. 



Once again press the .j=L key ana you will see the Notepad will 
fake you immediately to the Address Book page for Amstrad. 

■ / ou will notice on the right-hand side of the screen where the five 
-nessages are that four of the messages start with a Bold Capital 
.etter a e f d. Instead of using the . f .. key to move the dark 
oa.nd on to the message, there is a auicker method to use and that 
v simply to type in the Bold Capital Letter. 



MBESEHSBH 



Fird : Em trad-i 



Enter- te>:t tc F i '„; C na c-r?==. 



■s an example, let us ry to find the Doctor's telephone numoer. 
mply Dress the f key. As vcj will see. the Notepad moves +c +he 
.;reen with Amstrad still snowing from our last exercise. 

ow type :n Doctor ana oress the .rd, key. You will see the 
actor's name and address appear on the screen. 

any of the details in your Adaress Book entries change, you may 
sn to edit them. For example, the Doctor may change his 
-lephone number. 

: - vou have me Doctor's name and address on the screen, let us 
agine that he has cncngea ns te ! ephone number and you wish 
. 'eplace it in your address cook. 

■ vou will see. on the rgm-hand side of me screen, to edit the 
.;oress book simply press the E key. After pressing the E key, you 
■ notice that tne cursor is at "he end of the first ,lne. By using the 
.e key, bring the cursor cown to the line which you wish to 
'cnge ( telephone ). By us rg the Red key. bring the cursor along 
■;■ he to the beginning of the line, The cursor is now at the 
■-ginning of the telephone number. By using the ."i key ae/efe 
~ telephone number unt'l the curse is positioned left of the word 

-ergency. 

. -v 4 ype in the new telephone number 0702 11444 and Dress 
ro exit, 



You will now see that you have deleted the old telephone number 
and entered a new one, 

If, for example, you wish to delete a whole page of your Address 
Book, first of all find the page you wish to delete. Let us say we wish 
to delete The Essex Brick Co. Ltd. Press the F key and type in 
Brick. As you will see, the name and address of The Essex Brick Co. 
Ltd, will appear. 



Now press the D key on the keyboard and as you will see from 
the screen shown below, you will be asked if you wish to delete this 
address, 



Ranie 
Address. 

Te lephore 
Fox 




Br i ori Layer , _ 

The Ess?;-- Brick ijo Ltd 


i B'ldd New Address 
IE id it ftddress 


Cho 1 m i De 1 et e current address V 1 
Essex Press ¥ For Ves or N For NsJ 


i F ) i nd Mdaress 


0245 739800 


press Stop tc- exit 



If you do, you should press the Y key on the keyboard and if you 
have had second thoughts and do not wish to delete it, press the 
N key on the keyboard. 

In this case we have decided to delete The Essex Brick Co. Ltd., so 
press the Y key. Now by using the Browse function (Red and 
Green keys) you will see that The Essex Brick Co. Ltd. is now longer 
in your address book. 



If you have any problems, see page 
telephone support 



215 for details of our 



We now suggest that you type in a few of your most important 
names and address and explore the full use of the questions on the 
right-hand side of the screen (Menu of Questions). You can, of 
course, delete the examples that we have typed in when you are 
practising in this area One tip to remember is the most useful 
function of this section is that you can simply type in any name, 
word, town, village, building name, phone number or even a post 
code to find the Address Book page you are looking for, 



28 



3o, If all you can remember about John Smith is that he lives in 
3raintree, type in Braintree. Or if all you can remember about 
~ie Doctor is the fact that he is a Doctor, type in Doctor. If you 
-ave entered your aunty's details into your address book and you 
.•/ish to send her a birthday card and cannot remember her address 
cut can remember her phone number, simply follow the procedure 
oy typing in her phone number and her full details will appear. 

.Vhen you have finished using this section of the Notepad, press 
"'•i twice to exit to the main screen. 



you leave the Notepad switched on without using the 
keyboard for more than five minutes, it will automatically switch 
off. Simply press the power key and the screen will return. 



Jsing the Calendar/Diary Section 

■ess the Yellow and Blue keys. As you will see the screen is in three 
ections. We have already explored the Address Book section and 
- ow we are ready to explore the Calendar/Diary section. Do as the 
:reen says and press the Green key. 

-ie screen diagram below will display on the left side your location, 

;ate and actual time, in the middle there will be the actual month.' 
. n the right-hand side you will see a cluster of four arrows, 



Time Zone ; 
London 

Monday 
16 Mar S992 

Z: 13 hc 



PF1 



Mon 


Jue 


Ued 


Iku 






Sun 


2 


y. 


4 


S 


fi 


7 


1 
3 


_9 


IK 


11 


\Y 


n 


14 


IS 


*!? 


1 1 
24 


25 


19 


20 

?7 


21 


22 
29 


30 


jl 













To make a diary entry select 
dote using the «*4-» keys and 
press ** 

1991 

February ♦ « ftp,. \ \ 
1993 



-e four arrows have a verysimple purpose. The arrow pointing to 

■9 left means the Red S key. By pressing it continually the 
jrsor will reach the left-hand line ana automatically change the 
onth to last month. (You must watch the screen while you are 
■essing keys.) If you continue to press the Red &=3 key the month 
. I continually change downwards. By pressing the Green & 



29 



key the cursor reaches the right-hand line and the months will start 
to increase. By pressing the Blue '. a 'J key, when the cursor reaches 
the bottom of the screen, the year will change upwards. And finally, 
by pressing the 'Tj key, when the cursor reaches the top the year 
will change downwards, 

We suggest that you experiment by moving the cursor around with 
the arrow keys ond watch the changes on the screen carefully. Do 
this for a few minutes and then return back to the actual month 
and yecr. This facility obviously enables you to look forwards or 
backwards to any date in the past or in the future. 



Making a Diary Entry 

To make a diary entry locate the correct month and year by using 
the arrows as described above in Step 21. Once you have the 
correct month and year use the arrow key again to move the cursor 
to the correct day in the month that you require. Once the cursor 
is oyer the correct day in the month that you require, press the 
;\_f key. As you will see from the diagram below, you are invited 
to type in your diary entry. 




Let us for example type in the following: 
Remember to take car in to garage 

Now press the .U :,: :. key. 

You will notice that when the screen returns the cursor is in the same 
place over the day that you chose, but there is now a star * by 
the date that you chose. Using the arrow keys again, move the 
cursor around within the same month to another date further on in 
the month and press the \rL .key. Type in another example 
message and finish by using the .""■"■"J key, 



30 



You will now see that the two dates in the month are both marked 
with a star, The reason for this is that when you are browsing through 
the various months, any date which has a star by the side of it 
means there is a message in the diary. If you wish to look up any 
date in the month which has a star by it, simply move the cursor 
over the date which has a star by using the arrow keys and once 
the cursor is in place press the ED key and you wiil see your diary 
entry appear, 

One very good feature of the diary section is that once you have 
out a diary entry in for a certain date, when you switch the 

Notepad on for the first time that day the top dark band line of the 
screen will flash on and off and the Notepad will make a bleeping 
sound reminding you that there is a diary entry. Simply press the 
-^] key and your diary entry will appear. 

Once you have read the diary entry press the B key. As you will 

see from the screen diagram below, you are asked if you wish to 
-emove the diary entry or not. Simply follow the instructions. If you 
.vish to remove the diary entry press Y. 



Do you want to rewove today's diary entry ? 
Press x to remove diary ©ntry or Stop to exit 



Removing future diary dates 

• you have made diary dates for the future which for some reason 

^ve to be cancelled and therefore you wish to delete the diary 

-essage, simply locate the month and year, move the cursor on to 

~e actual day which has the star and press the B key. Once 

:gain you will be asked to press the Y key if you wish to delete the 
: ory entry. 

-ess the 9 key twice to exit to the main screen. 



31 



To use the Time Manager/Alarm/Clock Section. 

Starting at the main screen press the Yellow and Blue keys. 

As you will see from the next screen we have already explored the 
Address Book section and the Calendar/Diary section. To enter the 
Time Manager section, press the Blue key. 

As you will see from the diagram below, the Time Manager screen 
is again divided into 3 sections. 



■■cmiw iai agliMliE BEE f ■HMMCT 




|5ET/€dii| To set / edit 
tine zones 

Fress 
BLUE 



To set an Alarm 



You will see from the screen that the middle section states No 
Alarms set. This means that there is no Alarm call set in the 
Notepad memory. 

The purpose of the Alarm section is two fold. You can use the Alarm 
ust as you do with any Alarm Clock to wake you up in the morning 
or to remind you of an event during the day. 



To set an Alarm call follow the instructions shown on the left hand 
section and press the Red key. 

As you will see from the screen below, the current time is displayed 
on the left side. 




■gnPgiaiMI CTECJCBEMffiMIM.ll 1 lit**— 

Set the t ire. . .. , 
P-. eis *+ to .adjust tr* hoi.sr 
F'rVss- ^ uhen F 1 1* i shed 



Press Stop to ex-.' 



32 



To demonstrate how an Alarm calf works, we will set the Alarm -for' 
two minutes ahead. You can imagine it is being set for any time 
ahead. 

The cursor is now over the hour digits. As we don't wish to set the 

hour for this experiment simply press the G3 key. The cursor is now 
over the minutes digits - press the CD key until the minutes are 2 
minutes ahead of the current time shown on the top line, right 
corner of the screen. Now press the S key and by using the 

power switch, switch off the Notepad and wait. 

After a while you will see and hear the Notepad jump back into 
life, The screen will come on and the Alarm will sound. 







| t5:B4 


1 


Press Stop to exit 



As the screen says, press IfZ!) to Exit. 

The exercise we just performed was to set an Alarm call only two 
minutes ahead of the current time. 

Now try again and set an Alarm for 07.00 am tomorrow morning. 
Assuming the time today is after 07.00 am, press the Yellow and Blue 
keys, then press the Blue key followed by the Red key, 

As you will see the cursor is again over the hour digits. By using the 
ID CD keys, set the hour to 07 and press the GdJ key. 

The cursor is now over the minute digits,by using the CD QD keys 
adjust the minutes to 00 and press the Q key. 

The screen will now be set for 07.00 am which means if you switch 
the Notepad off now, it will sound the Alarm and switch on at 07,00 
am tomorrow. Now press the S key. 



33 



Using the Alarm Function as a reminder 

One of the other useful functions of the Alarm section is the facility 
to put a message into the Notepad at the same time as an Alarm 
call. For instance, let us say you wish to be reminded today to 
telephone someone at a specific time. 

Follow this example: Press the Red key to bring you the set alarm 
screen For the purpose of this example leave the hour as current 
and press the .- 1 .: key. 

Now set the minutes th'ee minutes ahead of the current time (as 
shown on the top line right corner of the screen) and press the .-> J 
key. 

As you will see on the right side of the screen, there are a list of 
functions Now press the letter M on the keyboard. 

You will now see a shaded area appear in the bottom left hand 
corner of the screen with the cursor on the far left. 

Type in: 

Remember to call John at the office. 

Now press the C~. key and turn off the Notepad with the power 
key and wait. 

After a while the Notepad will switch on and the message will show 
on the screen as well as the Alarm sounding. 



1 1 1 , ii ^^^^^^^^^^^^■■~~~ nTBi'^""""™""™ 1 ^ m 



15:137 R"» iMibgr to c ' : '- 1 Jjl "' r '' Qt tl " e '~-' r( **.; » 

cr*s:=. stop •: 3 *;: i t 



Press ;■'■''] to exit to the main screen 

Finally, if we don't show you now how to delete or cancel an Alarm 
call you will be woken up a* 7.00 am tomorrow 1 



34 



To cancel an Alarm Call 

Press the Yellow and Blue keys, then press the Blue key only. You will 
see the middle message on the screen Edit existing Ai*«n 
calls. Press the Green key. 

As you see from the screen below 




"ne Alarm call you have set is stored in the Notepad. 

ly following the instructions on the bottom line of the screen press 
■ne tlB key. 



Pres-i- V to delete olarm col 
or press STOP to exit 



~e screen will now invite you to confirm the cancellation. Press 
-sY key on the keyboard, and you will see the Alarm and message 
::sappear and you can sleep easy tomorrow as you have just 
■ ancelled your 7,00 am alarm call. 

-ere are many other functions in the Alarm section which are dealt 
•. Th in more detail in the second section of this book. 



36 



Changing Time Zones when you 
travel to other countries. 

We hope you will take your Notepad with you on alt trips. 



To change the time to other time zones, press the Yellow and Blue 
keys then press the Blue key and press the Blue key once again, The 
screen below will show you the present time zones. 



* uue Zone tf i n- er 



iMmncunMawMKHauaagM 



1 4 4b i Press E to *dit zone and oFF'set 



iprVniffiRp^^ +01 :00 1^:4-6 j Press .J to ie I eft " .:.s our rent t : me 

Mil York -05:00 09:46 Press ti arrou keys to move 

■ n.i (tna*-*~ -0:5:00 06:4b Press Stop to e:-*it 

Tokyo " +O'?.O0 lij;46 ■ ■■ ■■■ "" "" 

Sydney t'O 03 00; 46 



Let us say you a^e travelling from England to an European 
destination, 

For most of the year Europe is one hour ahead of the UK. You will 
see from the screen that dark band is over the word London. Press 
the Blue L4-. key and you will see it move down over central 
Europe, watch the top right corner of the screen and press the .zd. 
key, You will see the time jump ahead by one hour and the 

location name Change from London to Central Europe. 

Now let's get more adventurous and imagine we are in Japan 
which is normally eight hours ahead of the UK. 

Use the Blue A key again to bring the dark- band oyer Tokyo, 
look at the top right corner of the screen and press the .-0 key and 
once again the Time and location have changed. 

To go back to London time, press the [TJ key to bring the dark 
band over the word London and press the .zH. key, As you see, 
the top line of the screen snows London again as your location and 
the time back to normal. 

In the second section of the book we will explain how to put in other 
locations and their time differences. 

Press the r'i key three times to return to the main screen. 



36 



Do you want to know a secret? 
Using the secret function 

As you will notice, there is a key marked 'Secret' on the keyboard 
Next to the Red key ). The purpose of the secret function of the 
Notepad is to allow you to store information in the Notepad's 
-oemory which is your confidential and private data. 

"o operate the secret function, simply hold down the Yellow key 
und then press the IS key at the same time. 

As you will see from the screen display below, you are invited to 

vpe in a password or a PIN number ( Personal Identification 
' umber ). 



M!Ha»8WliWM 



Type neu password (4 letters or digits) ond press ^ : BIS 



■ow type in a number ( 4 DIGITS ) which you will remember and 
. -ess the G3 key. 

-s you will see, you are invited to double check the number, so type 
- in again and press the ED key. 

3nce you have double checked your Password/PIN and pressed 
->e ED key, you will see the screen now invites you to type in your 
rata. Type in the following: 

This is ny secret memory store 

\ow press the B key. 

jst as an experiment, press the Yellow key and Secret keyagain, 
-.pe in a wrong Password/PIN deliberately and press the El) key. 
•du will see that you are unable to get into your secret information, 

;-ess to exit. 



37 



Now press the Yellow and Secret keys again and type in your 
correct Password/Pi N followed by the [~ i . and you will see the 
message appear again. 



If you forget your password /PIN refer to page 60. 



Conclusion 

This is the end of Section 1 of the book. We hope that it is simple 
enough for you to have understood the basic functions of your 
Notepad Section 2 covers the operation of the Notepad in far 
more de + ail. 

Once again., may we remind you to fill out your Warranty Card and 
return it to us immediately so that we can keep you fully informed 
about al' matters relating to your Notepad. 



38 



SECTION 2 



User Guide 



Contents 

Powering the Notepad 

Switching off 

Automatic Power off 

Switching on 

Getting Around 

Short Cuts 

Single Key Operation 

Memory 

Expanding the Memory 

Word Processor 

Calculator 

Address Book 

Calendar and Diary 

Time Zones 

Alarm Calls 

Secret Information/Password Lock 

System Settings 

Word Processing Guide 

Spell Checking 
Printing 

Sending/Receiving Documents with other computers 

Mail merge 

Stored Commands * 

B8C BASIC 

Troubleshooting 



••" 1 '"!OA'' 



Appendix 1 

Character Set 
Appendix 2 

Summary of Editing Commands 

Appendix 3 

Display of Macro definitions 
Licence Agreement 
Copyright" page 
Index 



Powering the Notepad :hw "' 

Most of the time you will probably use the batteries to power your 
Notepad, these will enable you to work for approximately 35 to 40 
hours, when they need to be replaced a warning message is 
flashed on screen telling you to replace the batteries. 




Use alkaline type AA/LR6 1,5V or if preferred you can fit 
rechargeable (NiCad) batteries; these will provide about 2 hours of 

working time before needing to be re-charged, 

You can conserve the life of the batteries by connecting to the 

mains supply when you are working at home or in your own office. 

When there is no other source of power (when replacing the AA 
batteries for example) the lithium battery will maintain your work in 

the Notepad memory (the estimated life of the lithium battery is 5 
years). If the lithium battery needs replacing you will see the 

message "Lithium battery is low " . Ensure that good 

alkaline batteries are fitted or the mains adaptor connected while 
•/ou replace the lithium battery. You must use a CR2032 type battery 
•vhich can be purchased at many electrical or photographic shops. 



Warning; If all power sources are disconnected all the stored 
information; documents, addresses, diary entries etc will be 

permanently lost from the Notepad memory. 



Switching off 

■ou can switch off your Notepad at any time while you are using it 
and the work you are doing will be stored. 

When you switch on again you will be returned to the Main Screen. 
-ou may see the following message on screen for a few moments: 

storing .... 



43 



This will sometimes occur when you switch off while there is a word 
processor document on the screen. 

Automatic Power off 

If you ieave your Notepad switched on but don't touch any of the 

keys for five minutes it will automatically switch itself off to conserve 

power. 

The five minute period can be changed using the Systems Setting 

menu (press !■'■'■■" -1 key at the Main screen) but be careful, if you set 

the power off delay to zero, automatic power off will not occur and 

your batteries will be drained. 

Switching on 

When you switch on the Notepad you will be returned to the main 
screen unless the Notepad automatically powered off the last time 
you used it. then you will be returned to whatever you were doing 
ct the time., this is called 'Preserving the context". 

if you would prefer that your Notepad always preserved the 
context when you switch on change the 'Preserve context during 
power off setting in the System Settings menu. 



WARNING 

Your PC contains a Lithium battery, Danger of explosion if recharg- 
ing is attempted. Replace the lithium battery with the same type 
recommended by Amstrad PLC, Do not dispose of the old lithium 

battery in the fire. 



44 



Getting Around 



From the main screen you can access alt parts of the Notepad 
program by holding down the YELLOW key then press the RED, 
GREEN or BLUE key (the messages on screen tell you which key to 

press). 

The H3 E33 CD CD Keys 




When using your Notepad you will find that sometimes the coloured 
keys are referred to on the screen by their colour and at other times 
by the arrow symbols printed on them. 

The S key - 



D ress fcff) at any time to finish what you are doing, and return to the 
orevious screen, You may have to press B several times to return 
.ou to the main menu. 

Advice for beginners 

•Vhen you first use your Notepad you may find you "get lost" 
especially when using the more complicated word processor 
matures and pressing S will enable you to escape. As you 
. ecome familiar with your Notepad you will use the S key less 
:s you learn the short cuts. 

Short Cuts 

:u can short-cut the menus on your Notepad and go directly to 
e part you want using special key combinations to avoid having 
: return to the main menu. For ali the short cuts hold down the 
£_LOW [ F " ncrlon l key and press another key. 

.11^3 L±3 - To the word processor or returns you to the 

document you are typing. 



45 



(Function! 



[Functi 



■Function 



3 ED 



[Function] |**J|' 

[Function! p~ J 

[Function! p= | 

3 □ 

El 

in 

[Function] f* j 



iFunctic 



lFunct'Om 



[Functionl 



'"■ - Start a New Document ;4 - >"0 

- To the List of Stored Documents 

- To Print a Document 

- To use the Calculator 

- To the Diary Menu 

- To the Address Book* 

- To the Calendar/Diary . . 

- To the Time Manager 

- To the Set Alarm Call Menu 

- To Time Zones Manager 

- Run Memory Card Program 

(JEIDA/PCMCIA) 

- Serial Terminal Program ' ■■■■■■* 

- Go to BASIC programming 

- Enter password for Secret information 

You can use the key combinations above to quickly move from one 
part of the program to another without returning to the main menu, 
for example while typing a document in the word processor, hold 
YELLOW and press GREEN to use the calculator, to return to the 
document hold YELLOW and press RED. 

•Use this to insert an address from your address book into the 
document you are typing. 

Single Key Operation 

To assist the disabled the Notepad has been designed so that it can 
be operated using only one key at a time using the "Sticky shift" 
feature, Sticky shift has to be switched on at the System Settings 
Menu. 

The way sticky shift w orks Is that instead of having to hold down the 
|^H E™j I I or B key while pressing another, the keys 
can be pressed one after the other. 



F^^\ ED 



^ 



46 



At the main menu sticky shift will always work, for it to work at ottW 
times you must switch it on at the System Settings Menu: 

1 Press l~^) at the main screen 

2 Press the CD until you reach "Sticky shift'. 

3 Press the @ or@ key until "Yes" shows on the screen. 

4 Press S. 

Memory 

There are about 49,000 bytes of memory available on the Notepad 
for your "data", that includes all the information you type in; 

documents, addresses, diary entries and alarms. 

When you start to run out of memory your Notepad will give you a 
warning, to make space in the memory you will have to delete 
some of your documents, refer to the Word Processing section 
below for instructions on how to do this. 

Expanding the Memory 

You can increase the memory by the use of industry standard SRAM 

cards (JEIDA/PCMCIA cards) that can be inserted into the MEMORY 
CARD slot on the Notepad. 




Memory Cards with up to 1 MB capacity can be used with your 
Notepad. Instructions for looking after the cards, fitting the battery, 

write protection etc are supplied with the card. 

The card must be "formatted" before you can use it. Insert the card 
mto the slot then select the LIST STORED DOCUMENTS screen (hold 
down l Fu ^!if3 and press (ED then press O. Select "Format Memory 

Card" and press 0. 



47 



With the memory card loaded documents and addresses are 

automatically stored on the card, Documents and addresses that 
are already stored in the Notepad memory can be transferred to 
the card (see the instructions in the Address Book chapter and the 
Word Processing Guide). 

Note that you should always switch the Notepad OFF before 
inserting or removing a memory card. 

Word Processor 

Introduction . ,.^ T 

The Word Processor is designed to be simple to use but has many 

advanced and powerful features. With very little instruction a 
beginner can type a document without needing to understand any 
of the advanced features while the experienced user will find that 
many of the features available on their usual word processor are 
also available on the Notepad. 

If you are a begirjner at using a computer or word processor read 
the first section of this book that gives simple step by step 
instructions to get you started. Remember that you cannot harm 
your Notepad by pressing the wrong keys, so don't be afraid of 
trying things out (if, while doing this, things happen that you don't 
understand press the P*] key until you return to the main screen 
or a screen you do understand). 

For detailed information and instructions on word processing read 
the front section on this book and the Word Processing Guide later 
in this book. 

Features of the word processor 

Features that are available include; Spell checking, mail merging,' 
word count, cut and paste, find and replace, keyboard macros, 
accented characters, case changing and un-delete. 

The Notepad date and time, and addresses from the Notepad 
address book can be directly inserted into a document. 

Press the 1^3 key during word processing or use the key 

combinations listed on the Notepad "Template" (just beneath the 
LCD) to access all these features. } 



w 



4 



Transferring Documents 

Documents can be transferred to other computers via the serial 
port using the in-built terminal program supplied with your Notepad. 

The documents can be transferred in the "Protext" format for further 
editing within Protext on your PC or Amstrad PCW, or can be 
converted to ASCII format before transferring so they can be 
loaded into other programs. 

The Notepad word processor is a special version of Protext by Arnor, 
if you would like tcrbuy a copy of Protext for your desktop computer 
(IBM compatible PC, Amstrad PCW or other) it is available from 
computer dealers or direct from Arnor Ltd, 611 Lincoln Road, 
Peterborough PE1 3HA (telephone 0733 68909). 

The Template 



&MR7 / CLOCK 
RBSHSS Beat' 

YEiLOJ S RUE 




Printed just be!ow\he screen of your Notepad is the quick reference 
template. Use it while word processing to remind you of some of 
the key combinations re quired. For the activities printed in yellow 
hold down the YELLOW r """""■} key then press the key indicated 
(one of the keys along the top of the keyboard), for those in white 
hold down tz3 and press the key indicated. 

Some of the operations take place as soon as you press the keys, 
and have an obvious effect, others you wi ll need to learn how to 
use, For example, if you hold down l F "" c ' lo "l and press [=~1 all the 
words are counted and a message appears on the screen stating 
*he total number of words in your document, but if you hold f Fun °"°"l 
and press (ED a "menu" appears on screen with various options. 



W 



Calculator 

For step by step instructions oh using the Calculator read Section }. 

Hold down YELLOW F ne, H and press GREEN E=£l. For quick 
access to the calculator from another part of the program use the 
same key combination. 

The calculator works in a similar way to a most simple pocket 
calculators, 



Calculation 


Example 


Operation 


Answer 


Arithmetic 


15x2+7= 
(-32)+8 -2= 


15(x)2(+)7 (=) 
32 (±) W 8 (-) 2 (=) 


37 
-6 


Constant 


30+25= 
25+90= 


25 (+) (+) 30 (=) (25 constant) 
90(=) 


55 

115 




22-33= 

95-33= 


33 (-) (-) 22 f=) (33 constant) 
95(=) 


-11 

62 


15x4= 

45x4= 


4(x) (x) 15 (=) (4 constant) 
45 C=) 


60 

180 


45+3= 

354+3= 


3 {■*■) W 45 (=) (3 constant) 
354 (=) 


15 
118 


Percent 


15% of 150 


150 (x) 15 C%) 


22.5 


13 as a % 

of 40 


13 (-0 40 £%) 


32.5 


Add-on 


Increase 
150 by 15% 


150(+) 15(%)or, 
150 (x) 15(%) (+) (=) 

350 (-} 15 (%) or 
350 (x) 15 (%) (-) (=) 


172.5 
297.5 


Discount 


Decrease 
350 by 15% 


Square 
root 


Square 
root of 
45-29 


45 (-) 29 (=) (V) 


4 



50 



Calculation 


Example 


Operation 


Answer 


Using the 


32x3= 


(MRC) (MRC) (CE/C) 


96317514 


Memory* 


-) 62*2 


32 (x) 3 (=) (M+) 


0112 




+) 53 + 22= 


62 W 2 (=) (M-) 




Total 


53 (+) 22 (=) (M+) 




(16-(8 x 3)) 


(MRC) 






x (27-13)= 


(MRC) (MRC) (CE/C) 
16 (M+) 8 (x) 3 (M-) 

27 (-) 13 (x) (MRC) (=0 





"Clear the~calculator memory before performing a new calculation 
by pressing MRC twice then CE/C. 

You will see a flashing e in the top left of the display if an error 
occurs during a calculation or if calculation results in a number too 
large to be displayed, 

Unlike a normal calculator you can use B to delete wrongly 
entered numbers. 

Press [ S ""D to return to the main screen, or use one of the "Short-cut" 
methods to return to the screen you were using before the 
calculator. 



51 



Address Book 



For step by step instructions read Section 1. 

Hold down YELLOW Kir. 1 ""} and press BLUE Li'. To access the 
Address book from, a pother part of the Program hold down YELLOW 
f/ "::_■' r ] and press J'" ... 

If you have not used the address book oefore. and there are no 
addresses stored, you are taken directly to the screen where you 
can type in the first address: 




IIHSQIPMI 



flad, 


Edit aodr 


*=.! 




p| 


*= 


■=. t+ to r» 


»S 




i Pi 


e: 


s Stop tc 


e>: 


T 



When you press '.ri '. at the bottom- of the card the next blank card 
appears on the screen ready tor you to enter the next address. 

When you have finished entering addresses, press :-'*. . The Address 
Book Menu ;s now displayed: 



~t? I (aChlJI"!^ 
FCr! 



flrftitrao Flo 
1 E-? K ' nas Road 
Br«f-'.JOoa 
Esse--: CI la *EF 

0S91 SCSI 31 
iTPl 21 '351* 



IIB BjSHM II 



iiaKH^eEEm 



i H idd "Isu RddresE 
I. E Id 1 Hddres.s 

i'F i ind fl dares. 
(D I* ete Pddress 



orws» stop tc eft 



To 'Browse" through the addresses use the ."«-'! -.'t*. keys, All the 
other options can be earned out either by pressing the initial letter 
of the option or selecting the option using .. r j .. i .. then oressing 



(A)dd New Address: 



(E)dit Address: 



Select this when you want to add a new 
address to the address book. 

Use to amend the address card showing on 
the screen - to amend one of the other 
cards, first use browse' to find the cara 
then press I .. 



52 



(D)elete Address: 



(F)ind Address: 



r ess IM." at the mer- 
:gain to go back to t- 



Delete the card on the screen - select the 
care vol. want to delete using 'browse' 
then cress I ' ... Confirm that you do want 
to deete the card by pressing ..'■■ j for Yes, 
c r ■ you have changed your mind press '..^ .. 
for No 

^ino a particular address card - if you have 
lots of addresses this will be quicker than 
using Browse" to find the. address you 
■..ycr 1 When you press '.' . you will be 
as<ed to enter the Name to Find, type in 
* H y name or any part of the address or 
telephone number and press :.— '. . If 
+h e r e >s more than one occurrence of the 
*e.'.- you have typed press .'..... then .j=L 
../'•■" ■ "ne oddress you want is displayed. 

. •■:: go back to the Diary screen (press ;:'".'.'. 
e ^o n screen). 



Storing the address book on a 
Memory Card 

'.nen a memory cara ■= caaed the addresses you type will 
.^tomafically be storea onto "he card. If you already have 
.ddresses stored in the Vreoaa memory they will be transferred 
the card when you access +he address book. 

-e addresses are onry storec on the card., so if you remove it from 
a Notepad your adoress cook will be 'Plank'. If you insert new 

:-.idresses into this olerk adaress book they can be merged' into 
e address book or yojr cord later To merge the addresses, 
■/itch off your Notepad, nserf the memory card and switch on 

■■".ia'n. Access the aadress cook in the normal way (you will only 

e able_to find the addresser stored in the Notepad memory) then 
oss .':'.:.. you will see c message similar to the following: 



II WilBiBM I IBIIMaiillM IWaill 



FFerent: nddres* book 


F 


■und 


OP 


UIJI 


id 


Press Del to delete ■* 












ppess fl to ne---?e it 












P-es-s Stop to *>-it 













53 



Press y°) to merge the addresses, if you press ; : ""= the addresses 
will not be merged, 

Calendar and Diary 

For step by step instructions read Section 1. 

Hold down YELLOW [ F, '.::.'1 ond press BLUE H', then press GREEN 



T i me- Sopi* : 
Loo dor 

Monday 
2 Mor 1 99Z 
I 1 . t O 














To maKe Or entry se'eot date 
us i ng <-t*+ keys 'and p-ess * 

1991 

t 
February «- * ftr i ■ 

+ 
"■ 9y>: 


FTori 

IS 


Tue Ued 

3 4 
10* 11 
17 IS 
24 25 

;>1 


1 hu 

12 
19 
26 


13 
JO 


Sat 

14 
21 

°9 


Sufi 
1 

c 

15 
22 
29 



Use the %^l '-*.. LiJ '. t I keys to move around the calendar as 
indicated on the right hand side of the screen. The months anc 
years change only when you are against the edge of the calendar 

Pressing ^-" '.r** '•. i'l '.J '. with [ ] will move a month or yea - 
at a time when the cursor is in the middle of the calendar, 

1 he time and date are shown on this screen for your reference onk 
if you need to adjust the time or date go to System Settings (yc_ 
should only need to do this if you set it incorrectly in the first place 
or when, if you are in the UK, the clocks change to British Summe- 
Time). 

To make a diary entry, position the cursor on the relevant date — 
the calendar and press T-O , Type the details of your appolntme-: 
and relevant information into the diary editing screen: 



Using the diary is similar to typing a document in the word procs 
(although they cannot be printed). When you have finished : 



54 



;uH .. the diary entry is indicated on the calendar with an asterisk 

n. 

Diary Reminder 

When you switch on the Notepad and there is a diary entry for the 
day, a message will show or the screen and a beep will sound to 
'emind you to read ycj r diary This will continue every time you 
'eturn to the main screen i,-itii you have read your diary by pressing 
— !_ whilst at the main screen 







IT-vTMJfvS 












.— 


I To use the 
I WORD PROCESSOR 

I Press 
J YELLOU * RED 


. 






IFsl 


i3aa- 


:■ use the 
CALCULATOR 

P'-ess 
t^LDL 3 GREEN 




; 


•:• use the 
DIARY / CLOCK 
ADDRESS BOOK 

Press 
YELLOU .5 BLUE 

































■A/hen you have read *N 
of deleting the entry i- y 



entry press t*'" 1 : , you have the option 



.■■th 



^■■JF3S'MZ3J3 , 1 



II M*.W.M« ipii!T»fl'.M;IIE»i33s»l 



Do uou .ii:.- - -"; ~ : ' ± r : ■ e lodfld's. d a^y entity T 
Press V t-i ' ■=■- : ■=■ J ^ j en-^u or Stop to e:*"i 



Time Manager 

Motepad Alarms and the 
"om the Time Manager s 



■>*erra+ional Time Zones are accessed 



Time Zones 



■or step by step instructions en using Time Zones read Section 1. 

■"-om the main screen hold a own YELLOW [^—'H and press BLUE 
x . , then press BLUE again to go to the Time Manager. 



n* manager 


T i ^'Jl^^^^l^^^^^ 


jdrFFer-erice 


1 i ffi*? 

14:^6 


eritra! bur ope 


+01 


W 


1 :■ ■ ■*$ 


51,1 YorK 


-05 


no 


IS* 4i 


0* Angeles 


-03 


\W 


86. 4i 


Tik'-lO 


+09 


W 


2-5 4'.- 


joney 


+ 10 


00 


00:46 



wmgnmtmimmkiamw 



P. 


ess E Co edit zone- and oF'F«.et 




^ 


es-s J ts select as. current time 


zone 


-'■ 


€>£-:=■ t^ drrow Keys to move 
= 't'.e i .5.i. Stop to exit 





55 



Your Notepad has been set up to show the time in London, Central 
Europe, New York, Los Angeles, Sydney and Tokyo, you can change 
these to any six cities you require. 

Select the City to change using the cursor keys thenpress ? J, type 
in your new city name and press ED then use the laJ LVJ cursor 
keys to change the time difference then press L=JJ. 

Current Time Zone 

When you travel to a country that is in a different time zone select 
that zone as the "Current time zone". The other zones will adjust to 
give the time difference relative to where you are staying. 
Selecting the new current time zone will automatically adjust the 
time and place shown on the top of the Notepad screen, but will 
not change the times set for your alarm calls. 

Alarm Calls 

For step by step instructions on Alarm Calls read Section 1 , 

Hold down YELLOW F""°*°"l and press BLUE O then press CD at 
the Time Manager screen. Press RED Pt3 to go to the "Set alarm 
call" screen: 



|g;01 I Once only 



message 



Set the t i me . . 

Press t+ to adjust the hour- 
Press J when finished 

Press Stop to exit 



Follow the instruction on the left of the screen; you have to set the 
time first, then set the date and type in your message - note that 
messages are limited to 42 characters. 

When you press H 1 to edit the date it changes from "Once OnlyJ 
to 'Repeats every day", Press Q (3D to iset a specific date, ttf 
return to "Repeats every day" use \JJ or L±J until you reach the 
beginning or end of the month then press the key once more. 

Advanced Feature: To set an alarm for the same time on several 
d ay s of the weekpress 03 to adjust the date then hold down 
F> " ] and press S and you will see the following; 



56 



i 



1 1 KiiTsnnB i ■izuet-aome&a i 



15:31 



days : ITWTFSS 



Set the date, . , 
Press t^ to adjust the day 
Press ♦♦to move leFt/rignt 
Press ^ uhen Finished 
Press Stop to exit 



Each day of the week is represented by one letter, use the £D or 
3=3 to move the cursor from one day to the next then use the CJD 
or O key to cancel the days you do not want the alarm. So for 
example an alarm that you want on Monday, Wednesday and 
Friday might look like this: 



days ! tt-W-F— 



message : 



Alarm now s*fc 
Press T to adjust the tiwe 
Press D to adjust the date 
Press M to add message to alarm 
Press Slop to exit 



^ress S when you have finished 

"o set an alarm call for 24 hours hence just press 
Set Alarm screen. 



at the 



To change the time date or message of an 
alarm call 

^t the main screen hold down YELLOW f"""" ion l and press BLUE CD, 
::ress BLUE again at the 'Diary menu' t hen pr ess GREEN. The short 
:ut method is to hold down YELLOW l Fur,c,i *" , J and press □ then 
cress GREEN. 

o get quickly to the "Set alarm call" screen from any other part of 
•ne program hold down YELLOW r F "" c, '°"1 and press cJ. 

\ote that if you are editing a document when an alarm "goes off" 
■ne message will not appear - you must press B to read the 

-lessage. 



5? 



J 

— .— . J+.fp 

Secret Information 

For step by step Instructions read Section 1 . 

For information that you might like to keep on your Notepad but 
do not wish others to access (for example; passport number, bank 
accounts and credit card details or private telephone numbers) we 
have provided a "Secret Information" screen which can only be 
accessed by typing a password that you have set up. 

Set up your Password 

Hold down F"""H and press O you will see the following 

screen; 




Type in any combination of four letters and/or numbers and press 
ED, You can use capital or lower case letters, The password is 
totally secure, so if you ever forget it you will not be able to access 
your information, you can only delete it so - DON'T FORGET YOUR 
PASSWORD, 

You will be asked to confirm your password. Type exactly the same 

sequence again then press El. 




You can now type in your "secret information", you can edit the text 
in the same way as you edit a word processor document (although 
you cannot print). Press (H when you have fin ished Next time 
you want to refer to your secret information hold t^ c <^) and press . 
fcl-Vl then type in your password. 



58 



Complete Password Protection of your Notepad 

You can set a Password Lock to protect all the information in your 

Notepad using your Secret Information Password. 

If you have not already done so set-up your password as described 
in "Set up Your Password" above. 

Anytime you want to set the Password Lock hofd down EE3 and 
press 1^1 then switch off. 




Before the Notepad can be used again the password must be 
correctly typed and the G3 key pressed. 

Changing your Password 

To cha nge the password enter the Secret Information by holding 
[Functiorj a nd pressing fe3 and typing your current password, Then 
press the l~^l key: 




Type in your current password: 




Type in your new password, 



59 



important: If you cannot remember your old password it is 
ImpoTstole to change the password or to access the Secret 



Information. 



If you forget your password 

The password protection on your Notepad is totally secure, so if you 
foraeTyour password you have no option but to erase your Secret 
nformation or. if you have set the Password Lock to erase -dl your 
work held in the Notepad memory including document. d.ary 
entries addresses etc as well as your Password by resetting the 
Notepad. 

Erasing your Secret Information and Password . 

To erase the Secret Information: J 




2 Hold down the 6^3 key and press S. 1 

Press Q to confirm that you do want to delete ^e information. 
AlWour Secret Information as well as your Password will be erased, 

Resetting Your Notepad 



j! 



This will erase all your work stored in the No^WJ^ 

as your password. If you are using a memory card the addresses 

and documents stored on it will not be erased. 

Switch off your Notepad then hold down S andS together 

with the H key on the right and switch on the computer. 

To prevent accidental reset you cannot use "sticky shift" (single key 

operation). 

If the reset is effective you will hear an extended "beep", if you' 

hovl not held the keys down properly it will not reset. Try agam. 



60 



i 



System Settings *v^ ! 

The system settings menu is accessed only from the main screen by 

pressing fr-'*l 

The factory settings are as follows: 



, Use t * ♦- end ■♦.. Stof to finish 

Power 7 ^ ( 5 J Hj-i3£ 

Preserve context during power off CNoJ 

Document date display (Not shounJ 

Document transfer port and format (Ser ial/Protext ) 

Sticky shift keys'? (Ho) 

Time display Format (24 hour) 
Set tine ana date 



Document size and date display 

These will show against the name of each document in the LIST 
STORED DOCUMENT screen. The size of each document is shown 
n bytes with the date and time you last edited the document. 

Where the document is stored in memory is indicated by an initial. 
Z means stored on a memory card, U means stored in the Upper 
memory, L means stored in Lower memory, this is only of any interest 
"o you if you start to run out of memory and need to delete 
documents, delete those in the Lower memory to make room when 
•/ou are editing a large document. 

"o display the size and date use tt-3 or P^D to change the setting 
•rom "Not shown", you then have a choice of date format press ED 

Dn the format you prefer. 

Automatic Power Off delay 

•' you find the automatic power off time of 5 minutes is too long, 
■educe the time to between 1 and 4 minutes. Do not set the delay 
"d (never) particularly if you running the Notepad from the 
catteries as this will prevent automatic power off occurring. 

Preserve Context 

■ when you switch on, you want your Notepad to return to the 
: ;reen you were using when you switched off change this setting 
.; Yes. Context is always preserved when automatic power off 
- ccurs. 



61 



Sticky Shift keys 

To allow one-key operation of the Notepad switch "sticky shift" on, 
where normally you would have to press two keys at the same time, 
this allows you to press one after the other. So, for example, to spell 
check a document when word processing could first press the 
YELLOW r F "" eli °"l key then press GZJ. 

Document Transfer port/Format 

Use this to set Serial or Lapcat (Parallel) and Protext/ ASCII, refer to 
the section on transferring documents for more information. 

Time display format 

To change the time display to the 12 hour clock use the (T) EB 

cursor keys. 

Set time and date 

To change the time and/or the date press S at the main screen 

the press ChD or ZT\ until you see the following screen: 



§3i&[3iBlBUI!B&BI]IEBEECTI 



1^:04 j Thu 28 Aug 1992 



Set the t i me. , , , 
Press t* to adjust the hour 
Pi-ess - 1 uhen F i n i shed 

Press Stop to exit 



Set the time and date as described in the first section of this book. 
Note that the seconds are set to zero as you press E 1 ] after setting 
the minutes. Use the 24 hour clock even if you have changed the 
Time display format. 

(Don't use this method to change the time and date if you have 
travelled abroad to another time zone, select the correct Time 
Zone in the Time Manager- instead.) 



62 



Word Processing Guide 

For step by step instructions for beginners read Section 1 . 

Detailed instructions on how to use your word processor are given 

n this section. 

Starting a New Document 

/ou have to type a name for every document before you start, the 
name can consist of up to any 12 characters, the document is 
stored under this name and you can not have two documents with 
•he same name. 

At the main screen hold down YELLOW and press RED to reach the 
,Vord Processing screen then press RED. 

~ype in a name for your document; 

"hoose a name that will remind you of the contents of the 

document so that you can easily identify it later. 

Any 12 characters can be used, if you make a typing error use 13 

d[ S then retype. Press E±l when you have finished, 



fnei^^xthe 



End of text line 



-is text will disappear as soon as you start to type 

■ 3U can now start typing just as you would on a fresh sheet of paper 
- a typewriter. 



Saving a Document 



ocuments are saved ("stored") automatically. If you have a 
emory card loaded the document wili automatically be stored 
n the card. 



63 



.A 

A document already stored in the Notepad memory can be 
moved to the memory card as follows: 

1 Switch the Notepad off 

2 insert the Memory Card, carefully but firmly into the Memory 

Card Slot on the left side of the Notepad 




3 Switch the Notepad on 

4 "Edit" the document you want to store on the card (that is, bring 
the document to the screen): 

Hold YELLOW and press RED at the main screen 

Press GREEN at the Word processor menu 

Use the © g^} (T] Q keys to highlight the name of the 
document 

Press 0. 

With the document on the screen press 9. ' "* 



The document is now stored on your Memory Card and has beei 

removed from the Notepad memory. '■<■. 

•4 
To copy documents from a card into the Notepad memory set the 
"write protect" switch on the card to on, edit the document then 
press H. You will now see two copies listed in the LIST STORED 
DOCUMENTS screen, one on the card and one in memory to see 
which is which use "Document Size and Date" in the System Settings 
menu. . ' 



64 



i 



Large Documents 

The size of any document is limited by the amount of "free 
memory", this cannot be increased by using a memory card. 

■-Vhen you start to run out of memory you will see a warning 
-nessage on screen, delete old documents and diary entries to 
ncrease the "free memory" space, 

r o show how many bytes of memory you have available, and how 
-nany bytes each document uses you must show "Document sizes 
and date display" using the System Settings menu (see "System 
Settings")- 



Deleting a Document 



Delete documents if your Notepad memory becomes too full, or if 
.ou want to remove a confidential document from memory. 
Delete a document as follows: 

Hold down YELLOW and press F J 



: ='ELL 



Select the name of the document you want to delete using the 
@H EE keys 



Press &J 
Press O 



Are you sure you want to delete document 'xxxx' 
Press Y for Yes, N for No: 



Press O to delete the document. 



65 



Repeat the process for each document you want to delete. Once 
deleted a document cannot be recovered, so make sure you do 
not delete the wrong document! 

Renaming a document 

You can give one of the document a different name at the LIST 
STORED DOCUMENTS screen. Select the name of the document 
you want to change then press (~^!l. Select Rename by typing CJ, 
you will see the following message: 













D I d name i s F i rst . . 
Entor neu oame: BSs 


mmmm 











Type in the new name and press 

Copying a document 

With the document on the screen press £±^3, then press D to 
copy the document, you will see the following message: 




Type in a new name for the copy then press [-=Ll. You will be 
returned to your original document and the copy is stored. The 
copy can be edited in the same way as any other document. 

(There are several reasons you might have for wanting to copy a 

document, one example might be that you have typed a letter, 
then want to send a similar letter to someone else but you do not 
want to re-type it and you want to keep the original stored in your 
Notepad.) 



66 



Typing a Document 



If you have not used a word processor before you need to get used 
to the feel of the keys, as well as learn what all the keys do. When 
typing a light touch is required, if you hold a key down for too long 
it will be repeated on the screen until you release it. If you find it 
more comfortable, angle the Notepad using the flip-down legs on 
the base. 



4 ' ii ■! i q i ' "W| """i ^m ' ' "i """i tm \mm mm w 

■ m ■S„ * *m * ' ,| y , i ^ i | ' ^a'' !' wa ii #a '^gt^s ■'■'* ■ ' ■a 4 " 1 ' 



ilpiPal^ 



ste ^w *' 




1351 



LID. 




cursor 

The cursor is the 'flashing oblong" that marks your position on the 
screen, as you type the cursor will move ahead. When revising a 
document you can move the cursor using the 1^3 Ey*l fT] (~D keys. 



r-> 



Hoid down ohe of the SHIFT keys then press a character key to type 
the upper case letter or symbol, the upper case symbols are printed 
on the top haif of the key. 



Press to switch to typing all capital letters, y ou still have to use SHIFT 
to type the upper case symbols. Press l c "" L ° J 1 again to switch 
capitals off. When the caps lock is On a "C" shows in the top right 
land corner of the screen. 

-J] 

3 ress twice when you want to start a new paragraph. Use to start 
a new line when typing (for example) a list. 



67 



0S . * ■ - 

Use to delete text, if you want to delete more than a few characters 

you should use one of the other delete methods described below. 



Use to align text into columns and to indent the first line of a 

paragraph. (To indent a whole paragraph requires a different 
procedure - see section on changing margins.) 



How Not to Type: 



If you have used a typewriter before but not used a word 
processor it is important that you remember: 

Not to press [Hi at the end of each line, only when you start a 
new paragraph. The text automatically wraps to the next line as 
you type. 

Not to use the spacebar to move the cursor or to indent or align 
text. Only use the spacebar to insert a space between words. 
Instructions for indenting and aligning are given later in this 
manual. 



Of 






68 



Page size 



WlV.' 



■,rf*-**f. 



As you type the line will move down the screen, when you have 
typed a page of text a "page break" bar appears on the screen 
showing where the page will finish when printed, the word 
processor is set to print on A4 size paper but this can be changed 
using the "Layout" menu (if you want to do this refer to the chapter 
on Page Layout), 

Correcting typing errors 

If you make mistakes while typing you can use the S fczEl keys to 
delete single characters, or hold down one of the keys to delete 
several characters. There are other ways of deleting a line of text 
or a large section (called a "block") of text, these are described 
below. 

Moving around a Document 

Moving around a document really means moving the cursor 
around. Using the O S=+) CTJ [T] keys on their own will always work, 
out you may find this a bit slow especially in larger documents. The 
'ollowing methods will move the cursor around quickly. 



Page at a time forwards 
or backwards 



word at a time 

to the start of a line 
to the end of a line 
a screen at a time 



Hold down HH and press O to 
go back or HJ to go forwards 
(you don't have to remember this 
just refer to the Template on the 
Notepad). 

Hold F=> " " 1 and press 3 or 553 
to move to the beginning of the 
previous or next word, 

Hoid EE3 and press 13=3. 

Hold E3 and press (=§. 

Hold down E3 press GD to go up 
or m to go down the document 
7 lines, there is an overlap of one 
line that enables you to scan 
through a document using the 
minimum of keystrokes. 



69 



to the start of the document - Hold down E3 and press Q. 
to the end of the document - Hold down EE3 and press O. 

Inserting Text 

To insert new text into existing text just position the cursor and type 
the existing text will move along to make room. You must have the 
"insert" mode ON when you do this, otherwise the old text will be 
deleted as you type. Hold down the B3 key and press G~ ] to 
switch "Insert" on or off (you don't have to remember this just refer 
to the Template on your Notepad). 

Typing over existing text 

To type over existing text first hold EH™!!™) and press (O to switch 
Insert off then position the cursor over the text you want to replace 
and type. The old text erases as you type. Remember to switch 
Insert back on when you have finished. 

Deleting Text in a Document 

The delete keys Q and S will always delete text, if you press the 
key one character will be deleted, if you hold down the key 
deleting will continue until you release it. However there are other 
ways to delete large sections of text as described below; 



Delete a word - 
Delete a line - 



Hold down \fl J and press 8 or Q. 

Hold down Er-3 and press S or S to 
delete all text from the cursor position to 
the end or beginning of the tine or hold 
down EE3 and press GO to delete the 
whole line. (Refer to the Template if you 
forget which keys to use.) 



Delete all text in 
the document - 



Hold down 



iFunctior 



and press B. 



Undelete 

Deleted text can be restored if you used the EE3 or t!_ J keys to 

delete the text, not if you just used the B B keys on their own. 



70 



The text is restored to the cursor position, so you can use the 
undelete function to move text around within the document. 

To undelete hold down S and press d). 

(Undelete is also available in the "Editing menu".) 

Changing Case 

You can change the case of the text (that is, from capitals to small 
letters or from small to capitals) without re-typing the words. 

Hold down ED and press CD to change a small (lower case) letter 
into a capital (UPPER CASE) letter. 

Hold down ED and press GD to change a capital to a small letter. 

Keep the keys pressed down to change more than one letter. 

Swapping Characters 

A common typing error is to type two characters in the wrong order 
for example "wrod" instead of "word". To correct this error quickly 
use the swap characters command: 

Position the cursor on the "r" of wrod then hold down ED and press 



71 



Accents 

The most commonly used European accents can be typed into 
your Notepad documents in the following way. 

Hold down E3 then press the key indicated on the table beiow for 
the accent you want, release both keys and then type the letter 
that you want to be accented. You will not see the accent on 

screen until you have typed the letter. 



Accent Keys Valid letters* 


Umlaut , B '* J I aeiouAOU 


rv C^] f* 1 

Ring 1 CZU ls_j 


aA 


Circumflex 


E3Q 


aelou 


Acute 


aeiouE 


Grave 


rao 


aeiou 



*Note that only the accented letters that are included in the "Special 

Characters" menu can be typed. 

To type a c hold fcr] and press F_3, hold down £ J as well for C). 

To type an n hold down Er3 and press O, hold down El — ] as 
well for N. 

To type i, hold down B and press O. 

All the accented characters available and foreign currency 

symbols are available in the Special Characters menu. (Also refer 
to the chapter on Macros.) 

Special Characters 

A variety of characters other than those printed on the keyboard 

is available to insert into your documents. 



72 



Hold down the Q key and- press O to see all the characters 

available. 



C" P. B 
1 a b 
PiiS 
A i 6 
L L T 

a b r 



* ♦ t * 

S i * * 

C P E F 

c d e P 

8 a a 4 

u n n ^ 

I" = + r 

ir 2 a p 



fl S ► «»B1ir.lti-» 

., ,, / 8 I 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 ; 
MH0PDRSTUVMKY2 
mnopqcstuvuxyz 
iHAe*lE66dQwU6iJ. _ 

l r - - ,.- * 1 2. $ * ■ I, I < * i I i 1 « i " i J . 



JKL 
J k I 
e T T 



:< = >■? 

t \ D A 

C ! > " ~ 

£ s< % f 



*-*T+ to mov* 
•J to insert 
Sto|> to exit 



Use the L±3 \J±) 1X1 1 1 J keys to highlight the character you want to 
use and then press [=3. 

(These characters can also be inserted into address book or diary 
if stored as macros first - refer to the chapter on Macros) 

Boxes 

Horizontal lines, vertical lines and 'corners" can be drawn on screen 
and used to "box" text. 

Drawing a box 

To draw single line boxes hold down the Q key and use the H3 

3 CT] (Tl keys to draw the box. To draw the corners just 'drive* 
around the corner of the box with the cursor. 




Double line Boxes 

"o switch double lines on or off hold down the E3 and (7r 



J 



-ogether and press (ED then continue as you would for single line 
ooxes. 




73 



To insert text Into a box you have drawn swttch Insert Off. 

To print < — » i T characters on the screen holdjdown EB (^ J 
FT! then hold down Er3 and press EP3 f^§ IT] or Q. 

Note that the boxes will only print correctly if the printer and 

Notepad are set up correctly before starting to print. 

Codes 

"Codes" are used to control the special features of a printer, such 
as underlining, different sizes and styles of print, subscripts and 
superscripts. You have a choice when working in a document 
whether you see the codes or not. 

Turn the codes on or off by holding down the (j^H key and 

pressing (ID. 

When codes are off your Notepad shows underlined, italic and bold 
text on the screen but features like subscript or condensed print 
cannot be shown. 

Remove codes by showing them on screen then deleting them as 
you would any other character. 

Codes Off 




Codes On 




74 



Viewing returns, tabs, ruler lines and spaces 

"he non-printing characters can all be switched "on or off" on the 
screen. Hold down E3 and press ITD then type one of the 

; ollowing letters: 

ID status line on/off 



*3 



spaces on/off 
ruler lines on/off 
tabs and returns on/off 
codes on/off 



Inserting the Current Date or Time into a 
Document 

.Vith the cursor at the position you want the date to be inserted 
nold down the F""*) key and press (ED to insert the current date or 
-iold down fcr) and press G to insert the current time, 

Inserting an Address from your Address Book 
into a Document 

~o insert an address from your address book into the document you 

j re typing first position the cursor where you want the. address to 
jppear. Then hold down YELLOW h"^! and press ED. this will 
•ake you directly to the address book: 



"elephone 
-ox 



_ i an Layer 

The Essex Brick Co Ltd 

Old Ki In Marks 

Che I msFord 

Essex Ct'lB 7DY 

0245 123456 

0245 78?B00 



.'Jew Address 

(E)dit Address 
( F ) i nd P-ddi-ess 
IDJelete Address 
(«■) Brouse (+) 
press Stop to ex i t 



,se L'i=3 [=*J or "Find" to find the address you want to insert then press 
J to "Transfer". The name, address, and telephone numbers will 
•nen be inserted into the document. Use f~") SJ to delete the line 
.ou don't want. 



75 



Inserting one document into another 

With the document on the screen, position the cursor where you 
want the second document to be inserted hold down r n J^I and 

press E 1 Highlight the name of the document you want to insert 
then press Q. This could be used for inserting standard paragraphs. 

Moving, copying and deleting blocks of text 

Before you can move, copy or delete a block of text you must first 
mark the block, (The block editing commands are given on the 

Template.) 

Marking a block 

First mark the start of the block by positioning the cursor on the first 
character then hold down E^3 and press UtsJ, mark the end of 
the block in the same way. 

(To quickly move to the start or end of a block hold down Er3 and 
press (?J then press Q or GZ).) 

If there are codes in your document for bold or underlining etc, 
these will show on screen as you mark the block. This is to help 
prevent you leaving the codes behind when you move, copy or 
delete a block. 

Move block 

First mark the block as described above then position the cursor 
where you want the block to be inserted and hold down l!^f!^l 
and press C- A The block wilt move from the old position to the new, 

Copy block 

First mark the block as described above then position the cursor 
where you want the block to be repeated and hold down r"" c, '°1 
and press (LI The text will be copied. 

Store a block as a separate document 

Storing a block as a separate document allows you to insert that 

block into other documents (as described above). 



76 



First mark the block as described above then press (~S3. Press D 
(to "Copy block or document") you will see the following message: 




Type in a name for your block then press 0, you are returned to 
the document and your block is now stored. 

Delete block 

First mark the biock as described above then hold down f""'" "! 
then press B (refer to the Template). 

Undelete block 

To restore a deleted block position the cursor where you want the 

block and hold down EE3 anci press E±L 

To unmark a block 

When you have finished wofMng with a block hold down Er3 and 
oress ED. This clears the square bracket codes and the 
highlighting from the screen. You cannot mark another block 
oefore you have unmarked the first. 

Centring text 

"o centre text on a line use the 'Centre* command, Type the text 
•o be centred then, with the cursor positioned anywhere on the line 

nold down E3 and press G_l 




' you make a change to the text later centred use the same 
rommand again to re-centre it. 



77 



Italics 

To change text to italic use the 'Italic" command. Position the 
cursor at the beginning of the text to be italicised and hold down 
B and press S then repeat this at the end of the text, if you 
want the word to be italic as you type hold down fczrJ and press 
(3 before you start typing then do the same again when you have 
finished. 

The text will show as italic on screen only If Codes are OFF. If Codes 
are ON you will see two highlighted letter Ts in the textLJhese are 
the italic "Codes", To turn Codes on or off hold down l F -^!l^ and 

press 2D. 

Cancel Italics 

To cancel the italics command you must delete the italic "codes", 
To do this the codes must be showing on screen, if they are not hold 
down F""°^ l and press (ID. Delete the highlighted Ts by 
positioning the cursor on them and pressing B. 

(Note that whether italics appear in the printed document will 
depend on the printer you are using and how you have set up the 

printer and Notepad before printing.) 

Bold .J: 

To embolden text position the cursor at the beginning of the text to 

be bold then hold down ED and press (£3, do the same at the end 
of the text. If you want text to be bold as you type hold down t™zJ 
and press (£3 then start typing, when you have finished hold down 

ErB and press S3 again, 

The text will show as bold on screen or you will see two highlighted 
letter "b"s in the text; these are the bold "codes". To turn these 
codes on or off hold down &3 and press EJ. 

Cancel Bold 

To cancel the bold command you must delete the bold "codes", to 
do this thecodes must be showing on screen, if they are not hold 
down b^"'^ and press (13. Delete the highlighted "b"s by 
positioning the cursor on them and pressing PD. 



78 



(Note that whether bold appears in the printed document wllf 
depend on the printer you are using and how you have set up the 
printer and Notepad before printing.) 

Underlining 

"o underline text position the cursor where you want underlining to 

start then hold down r '1 then, press O, repeat this where 

underlining is to stop. If you want to underline the words as you 

•ype hold down F"3 and press S~3 before you start typing then hold 
3 and press O again when you have finished. 

;Note that whether underlining appears in the printed document 
A'iil depend on the printer you are using and how you have set up 
-he printer and Notepad before printing.) 

Changing the character style and size 

"ne Notepad will print your documents with 10 characters per inch 
also known as "Pica") but there are other options available in the 
?ryle menu. 

.Vhether the changes you have made appear on the printed 
jocument will depend on the printer you are using and how you 
ave set up the printer and Notepad before printing. 

How to change the character size or style 

Position the cursor at the beginning of the text you want to 

change. 

2 Press the G^D key. 



' 






- Macro record start /end 

- Display macros 

- Copy block or document 
-Print to Screen 

- Print Block 




5 ■'- Style . ., 

T » Text Format t i ng ... 
■ H - Create Header 
: F - Create Footer 


D - 

C 

P 

e 







79 



3 Now select the Style menu by pressing 23 or by using the 
rjH) ® Ttl keys then pressing [=D. 



C-- Condensed 
E - Elite 
I - Itol io , 
L - EnLarged 



p - Proport i ona I 
8 - Quo I ity 
S - Subscr i pt 
T - Superset- ipT 
U - Under I ine 



1 



4 Select the style you want using the (cursor) keys and press SI 

or by typing the letter to the left of the option. 

(Note that some combinations of styles will not print together.) 

5 A code will be inserted into the document. 




The code should also be inserted where you want the style to finish, 
Position the cursor then repeat the above procedure. 




Place markers 

You can insert "place markers" into a document in order to get 
quickly to a particular place. You can have up to 10 individual 

markers or a limitless number of multiple markers. 

Insert markers into the document by holding down Fd and 
pressing PTJ and then typing either a number from to 9 for 
individual markers or a ? for a multiple marker. (A message appears 
on the status line showing which characters can be used.) 



80 



Use the same command when you want to go to a particular place 
marker, to a block marker or to the Left or Right margins of the text. 

To go to the next marker of any type hold down E3 and 1^ I and 
press CejJ. To go to a previous marker press ED . 

The word processor menus 

There are various menus of word processing functions that can be 
accessed by pressing the H~3 key when a document is on the 
screen. 



(^■■EBpnEHHaaVAVAVAVAVAVAVAVaVfll H ~ Macro record start/end 

S » Style ~ D - Display macros 

T * Text Formatting C - Copy brock or document 

H - Create Header P - Print to Screen 

F - Create Footer 8 - Print Block 



Some of the options have an immediate effect when selected, 
others require additional actions. 

There are quick-key alternatives to some of options that are 
available in the Editing and Text formatting menus and these are 
shown in the menus. 



.^______, V - V i eu user d i ct i onary 

__._ . ine/page/coluror. 'Ctrl-6) R - Remove word From user dictionary 

Count uords in Block D - Date (S«m-D) 

K - Clear workers !CtH-Ki T - Time ISvn-T) 
Undelete black ictrl-U 



The quick-key alternatives all require two or three keys to be held 
down an once, so for example (Ctrl-K) means hold down the fciz) 
key while you press O. "Ctrl" and "Sym" are abbreviations for 
"Control" and "Symbol". 

To get out of a menu at any time press S until you return to your 
document. 

For instructions on how to use particular options refer to the relevant 

chapters in this book. 



81 



Documents 

Hold down E^^j and press GZI to quickly access the LIST STORED 
DOCUMENTS screen while you are editing a document. To rename, 
detete, insert, print or edit another file press ESI then select the 
option you want. To transmit files to another computer you can use 
the Send or XModem send, refer to the section on transferring files 
for details. 

To get to' the LIST STORED DOCUME NTS s creen from other parts of 
the Notepad program hold down fc^! on J and press £_J. 

Headers and Footers and Page 
Numbering 

Headers and Footers are lines of text which print at the top and 
bottom of each page within the header and footer margins. A 
page number can be inserted that will automatically increment. 

The commands to insert headers and footers are "Stored 
Commands" and for more information on stored commands refer 
to the section later in this manual. 

Headers and Footers 

The header prints at the top of the page within the header margin, 
if you want more than 3 lines of header you will have to change 
the "header margin" (refer to the section on page layout). The 
header will print on the top of the header margin, a footer will print 
at the bottom of the footer margin. 

Inserting header or footer text: 

1 With the cursor positioned on the first line of your document 
press the S key. Then press either FD for header or □ for 

footer. 



82 



*1Ke header command is inserted into the document and you* 
can now type the text that you want to appear in the header 
or footer, eg: 




If you want to centre the text you can do so by holding down 
E3 and pressing .= ,. Note that the > must be in column 1 (on 

the extreme left of the screen) for a header or footer to work, 



Multi-line headers and footers or differing header and footer text 
;n odd and even numbered pages can be included using some 
z f the advanced Stored commands. Refer to the section on stored 
zommands for more information. 

Page Numbering 

-"age numbers will automatically be inserted where you type a 
::ercent (%) symbol in a header or footer, Page numbering will start 
::+ 1 but you can change this using the PN command, refer to the 
ection on stored commands for details. 

The Go To Command 

"-.is is a useful command if you have a long document. You can 
:o directly to a specific line, column or page number. If you want 
■ d see line and colum n nu mbers you will need to switch the "Status" 
->e on by pressing f""^""! S3 . 

-old down EzB key and press D. 



83 



, , , ,s Tsthe First time i hove eve™ used o computer ~ 

this is the second line oF the First document i have ever uritten on o 

computer 



Type in the letter p, I or c then the number, for example to go to 

page 2 type: p2. 

The Go To command is also available at the Editing Menu. 

Status Line 

The line across the top of the screen when you are typing a 
document is called the status line. Your Notepad has two types of 
status line, a simple one for beginners and a more detailed one for 
advanced users. 



Hold down 



and press (T3 to switch on the status line. 

Line Column Right Justified Wordwrap 




i seert to be getting good at th|s now ,, . 

i hove noticed there are no capital letters in my senteiices 

THIS LINE IS ALL IN UPPER COSE ....,.__, 

Now I an getting quite good on this Notepad ^^-^ 



C (Caps Lock on) R (Recording Macro) 



Word w rap and right justification can be switched on or off at the 
l Fun<:,i p "i HI menu. Insert mode can be switched using Erj LTJ. 

Page break 

Page breaks will automatically occur at the position determined by 
the page layout. If you want to force a page break before this 
hold down E3 and press [ P J). The page break stored command 
will be inserted into the document; 




84 



Page Layout 

The way your Notepad "lays out" the text on the paper can be 

altered by changing the "Layout" menu and inserting Ruler Lines. 

The illustration below shows how the margins and ruler lines affect 
the page layout. 



Std* 
MM*! 



t Top Mk&i 3 Unas 



t llnair Mar g in 3 Ubm 



Length 
« Lima 



r— !— i- 



Un« 

mutable 
tot 

printing 
text 



Fvoar taut 



The text is printed immediately to the right of the side margin. To 
centralise the text on the page the R on the ruler line must be 

correctly positioned. 

To indent a paragraph insert a ruler line with an L where the text is 

to start. 



85 



Layout Menu 

Use the Layout menu to alt er the margins that will appear on the 

printed page; hold down h" eti °"J and press ILzJ: 



HfflmHWl Over-type or * ■» to change, t* to Move. «SM« to P' msh 

PSge TeAgTKT lines) |&> «,- 

Top margin ( lines) }|{ J 

Header margin C ines) >£{ | 

Footer margin C mes) J^ § 

Bottom margin CI mes) ;•?{ | 

S i de morg i n ! chars ) } J ' ?» ■'" 

Line spacing U mes) l " '■ 



Use CT) or E to select the margin or other value you want to 

change, delete the current value using EH then type inyour new 
value and press El , change lione spacing using 133 L=tl ,when 
you have completed all the changes press fcs to return to the 
editing screen. 

Page Dimensions 

The settings in this menu govern the length of the page on your 
Notepad screen and should be compatible with the paper you 
want to print on, if the settings are wrong the document may not 
print onto paper in the correct position. 

Page Length: This is expressed as the number of 

lines on the page, there are 6 
lines to an inch, so, for example, 
A4 paper has 72 lines. 

Top and Bottom Margins: These are the blank areas at the 

top and bottom of each page. 
You may want to adjust these if, 
for example, you are using 
headed notepaper and need to 
increase the top margin so 
printing starts further down the 
* page. 

It is important to note that many printers are physically unable to 
print on the top and bottom few lines of a single sheet of paper 
and you must allow for this. For example, if your printer cannot print 
on the top inch of paper, make the top margin at least 6 lines. 



86 



Header and Footer Margins: The header and footer margins 

are ignored if there is no header 
or footer fext to print. If you have 

inserted a header or footer make 
sure you allow enough margin for 
it. 

Aligning Text using "Ruler Lines" 

Ruler Lines enable you to align the text in different ways, for 
example if you want to indent a paragraph (on the left or right) or 
type a table of figures, create a Ruler Line setting left or right indents 
and tab positions where you want them. 

All the text after the ruler line will conform to it. 

Inserting a Ruler Line 

To insert a Ruler Line into a document simply type a "greater than" 
symbol (>) at the start of a new line, type an V where you want 
an indented left margin, exclamation marks (!) for tab positions and 
an "R" where you want the line to finish. Use hyphens between the 
symbols, this is not essential but it does make the ruler line easy to 
pick out on the screen. All the text after the ruler line will conform 
*o it until another ruler line is inserted. For example: 



When you start a new document there is already a standard ruler 
line set up like the one above, this will not be visible unless you 
change "Show Ruler" to YES in the "Configure" menu. Ruler lines are 

not printed. 



87 



i 



there is already a standard ruler line 

will not be visible unless you change 

Configure menu. Ruler I ines are not 



-RJ 



When you start a new document 
set up I i ke the one above* th 
"Shou Ruler" to VES in the 
printed .t- 1 

(-» This paragraph is indented on both sides. Text can be 

* inserted to the IeFt oF the margin to enable you to number 

* the paragraph,- 1 

> ! L ! RM 

+ to)* Position the cursor on the outside margin using the 

* * cursor keys then press the tab key, type trie number then 
+ * press tab and start typing the paragraph,*! 

■* lb)* Always use tabs to align text - they make re-alignment 

* + eas i er when you make any changes ana are essent i a I For 

* * typing tables. For example:** 
J 



■i ii ii ^^m 



Boguette*3anduiich*Rol I J 



Cottage Cheese* 
Provenca I * 
Bacon & Rvocado* 



1.38* 

1 .30* 
1 ,69* 



1 .10* 
1 .10* 
1,30* 



0.90J 
1.10J 



-RJ 



when you want to revert to using the standard ruler line hold doun the 
[Control] key and type "d". The standard ruler line is inserted. J 



Deleting or Editing a Ruler Line 

The Ruler Lines that you insert can be deleted or edited in the same^ 
way as all the other text. Move or insert more tab positions at any 
time by inserting and deleting exclamation marks. 



Using Tabs 

Set tab positions on your ru ler line by typing exclamation marks (!) 

then use the tab key (G=ZD) to move from one column to the next, 

When using tabs it makes work a lot easier i f you show the tab 
characters on screen, to do this hold down f FlJ ""H and press UD 
to get into the Configure menus then press CD till you reach the 

"View Options" menu. 



Press ♦• •* to change. 
_.>ou printer codes? 
Shou spaces? 
Shou tabs and returns? 
Shou status information? 
Shou ruler 



t 4 to Move, St« 
I No) 

(Ho) 
(No) 
(No) 
(No) 



to Finish 



lo 

o 



88 



Move the cursor down to "View tab6~dnc?f&tom* , .then use tt»teft 

or right cursor to switch to "Yes" then press B. 






Cottage Cheese* 
Provenca I * 
Bacon S Avocado-* 



Baguette+Sanduich+Rol I J 

1.30+ 1.10+ 0.90J 

1,30+ 1.18+ B.9B»* 

1.60+ I .38+ 1.1BJ 



Decimal Tabs 

To automatically align figures at the decimal point, insert a decimal 
tab position on a ruler line using a full stop (.), for example; 



Baguette Sanduich Rol I 



Cottage*Cheese 
Provence I 
Bacon*<U Avocado 



1 .38 

1 . 30 
1 .60 



1.18 G.98 
1,10 6.90 
1,30 1.10 



Right Align Tab 

If you don't type in a decimal point at a decimal tab the text will 

be "right aligned". To align text against the right margin use the tab 
key to position the cursor at the end of the line then type and press 

return, for example: 




Amstrad ploJ 

P0 Box 1331-J 

BRENTUOOCV 

Essex 0114 4ERJ 



Find and Replace 

When you want to find a particular word, or piece of text within a 
document you can use Find. To find the word or text and replace 

it with different text use Replace. 

w 



89 



To use "Find" hold down t F "" cti H and press El. type in the word or 

text to find and press (~H. To find and "Replace" hold down [ F "" c "°"] 
and press S3, type in the text to find press Ch] type the 
replacement text and press ED. 

The following characters and the printer control codes cannot be 
entered directly into the text to find or replace but you can enter 
them using an exclamation mark as follows: 

Printer control code lletter 

question mark I? ■*.'* 

exclamation mark I! 

hard return I- 

soft hyphen I- 

non-break hyphen L 

non-break space I space 

search for specified code ! number 

Wildcards - a question mark (?) can be used to represent any single 
character except for a J and you can use an unlimited number 
of wildcards. So, for example, to find all the occurrences of 
■recognize" and "recognise" you should type in "recogni?e" as the 
text to find, 

When you have entered the text you can press return for a simple 
search forwards from the current cursor position to the first 
occurrence, ignoring the case of letters and finding the text even 

if it occurs as part of a longer word and asking for confirmation 
before replacing a piece of text. 

You can select one or more of the search options, The options are: 

G - global: Search the whole document from the start 

regardless of where the cursor was when 
selecting "Find". 

C - match case: Only find occurrences where upper and 

lower case matches with the text you have 

entered. 

B Search backwards from the cursor position 

to the start of the document. " 

W Only search for whole words. 



90 



A Find/find and replace all occurrences' td 

the end of the document, the total number 
of occurrences/replacements is given on 
screen when finished. 

n '" Find the nth occurrence of a piece of text, 

Type any number up to 255. 

Using Find 

Once you have typed the text and selected the options, if any; you 
are returned to the document and the cursor will be on the first 

occurrence. To find the next occurrence hold down E3 and press 
53, to search back for the previous occurrence hold down (EE3 
and press ED. If not found a message ' xxxx not found" will 
appear on the status line and you will hear a beep. 

Using Replace 

The cursor wili be positioned on the first character of the first 
occurrence of the text to find and a messages. Replace text y for 
yes n for no? wilt be displayed. Press ED to replace the text and 
move on to the next occurrence. Press Q to move onto the next 
occurrence. To finish finding and replacing press B. 

Examples: 

To find all occurrences of the word "text" in lower case only, starting 
at the cursor position: 

Find: text 

Options: CW 

To convert all occurrences of "pic' or "Pic" to PLC, confirming each 
replacement: 

Find: pic 

Replace with: PLC 

Options: GW 



91 



To find the 12th 8 tetter word: 






Find: 


99999'?'?'? 


Options: 


WG12 




Macros 




>A 


What is a Macro? 


".;■■■■ •■■■■' 


- -H' 



A macro is a sequence of keystrokes stored together so they can 
be reproduced by using just two keys. So, as a simple example, 
you can save a frequently used phrase to save yourself having to 
re-type it every time. At a more advanced level you can use 
Macros to execute commands or to quickly insert a "Special 
Character" into your document. 

A few macros are already on your Notepad; for example when you 
insert the current date into a document by holding down EE3 and 
pressing (ED you are using a macro. Other macros are set up to 

give you European accented letters, The table below shows all the 
ready made macros. 



a 


a 


m 


H 


S 


B 


E 


A. 


c 


e 


n 


h 


t 


time 


N 


N 


d 
e 


date 


o 


6 


u 


u 


O 





ce 


P 


1 


A 


A 


s 


B 


h 


v 2 


q 


! /4 


C 


i 


u 






To use a macro hold down (Symbol) and press the letter key, hold 
down (Symbol) and (shift), for the capital letters. 



92 



How to record a Macro Ttirase" 

1 With a document on the screen press the P"3 key, 



• .. -•• • * 




Select "Macro Record start/end" by using the 

keys to highlight the option then pressing Gil or by pressing C^J 



Press Symbol and letter, then key sequence: 



Hold down (rr3 (or B and I s I t press a letter key. You are 

returned to the document. (While you are recording the macro 
an "R" shows on the top right hand corner of the screen.) 

Type in the phrase you want to store. (In this example we are 
storing "Yours sincerely*) 




When you have finished typing the phrase press J^and select 
"Macro record start/end" again by using the 13=3 E=»! [T3 GJ keys 
to highlight the option then pressing M or by pressing ( M .<J. if 
you make a mistake wh.le recording a macro (step 5 above) 
then start again. 



93 



..-i 



.*!."'? 



How to record a Macro "Command" 

In this example we are storing the command to change to large 
print size under the E3 CJD macro. A "Special Character" can be 
stored in the same way. 



1 



With a document on the screen press the S key. 



E » Ed i t i ng 

S » Style ... , 

T » Text formatting 

H - Create Header 

f - Create Footer 



- Uisplay macros 

C' - Copy block or document 

P - Print to Screen 

B - Print Block 



Select "Macro Record start/end" by using the ut3 S CD GD 

keys to highlight the option then pressing l-zU or by pressing cl°): 



Press symbol and. letter, them key sequence t 



3 Hold down EE3 press ED. You are returned to the document, 
(While you are recording the macro an "R" shows on the top 
right hand corner of the screen,) 

4 Now carry out the command or procedure you want to store, 

For this example press the O key. select the Style menu by 

pressing £J, then select Enlarged by pressing FTJ. You are 
returned to the document and the enlarged print code shows 
on the screen: 

5 Press &"3 then press O. You are returned to the document 
and the macro is stored. If you make a mistake while recording 
a macro (step 5 above) then start again. 

To insert the enlarged code into any document you can now hold 
down t""*d and press Q. 



94 



Displaying the Stored Macros 

\ list of all your stored macros is displayed on the screen if you 
select "Display macros' at the Editing Menu: 



E » Ed i t i ng . . . n - Macr o record start /end 

s» style:,. ijaiiBaErTEgeE^™^™ 

T * Text formatting ,., C- Copy block or document 

H - Create Heoder P - Print to Screen 

F - Create Footer B - Print Block 



/ou may not understand some of the macros listed, refer to the 
appendices for further details. 

Spell Checking 

''our Notepad word processor comes with a 48,000 word dictionary 
and you can add words to it that you regularly use. The spell 
checker compares each word in your document against those in 
-he dictionary, when it finds a word that is not in the dictionary it 
highlights the word and a menu shows on screen with various 
options allowing you to store the word in the dictionary, ignore ft, 
:hange the word yourself (edit) or select a word from the 
aictionary. You can also spell check a single word. 

=or instructions on how to use the spellchecker (Spel! word and Spell 
•ext) refer to the front section of this manual. 



User Dictionary Upkeep - k 

zach word you "Store" when using the spell checker is stored in your 
User Dictionary. You can view" the words stored and delete words 
-nat you mis-spelt or no longer need. 

View the words in the User Dictionary 

While a document is on the screen press the (S3 key: : ™^p,Jj 



— — in mi .in jJM^M^^M^^^^^^^B M - Macro record start /end 

3 * Style . , . - Display macros 

T » Text formatting . . C - Copy block or docunent 

H - Create Header P - Print to Screen 

F - Create Footer B - Print Block 



95 



.A 

2 Select the Editing menu by pressing O. •- ;*. ■,■■,?.—.>•? 



C - Choose character (Sym-Kenu) ^__^ r~^- 

G - Goto I i ne/page/co I umn (Ctrl-GJ K - Keroove word l-'rom us-er dictionary 

B - Count uords in Block □ - Oate (Svm-D) 

K - Clear markers (Ctr(-K) T - Time CSum-T) 
U - Undelete block (Ctrl-UI 



3 Press \LJ to select "View User Dictionary", 

The words on the screen cannot be changed or removed and 
pressing any key will return you to your document. 

Remove a word from the User Dictionary 

Only words that you have stored can be removed. 

1 While a document is on the screen press fc-^1 - 

2 Press (EH or Ell to select the "Editing Menu* 

3 Press tO to select "Remove word from user dictionary" 



Type word to delete Pro** the user dictionary and press *J 



4 Type the word then press ED; the word Is removed and you are 

returned to the document. 

The word must be typed exactly as it is stored, if you type It 

differently you will see the message: 



T<-ip<? word to delete From the user dictionary and press ** Bienkinsop i 
Hot i n user d i ct i onary , Press o key : 1 I 



(If this happens "View the User Dictionary" to see how you spelt the 
word originally, then try again to remove it.) 



96 



Counting Words 

Your Notepad will count all the words in your document, just hold 
down P ""°' r °"l and press GZ) . 



ue can use 



the 



Count i ng , . , 323 uords 
Press Stop to exit ... 



Configure 

Change the default word processing settings using this menu. If, 
for example, you prefer always to see the codes on screen change 
the "Show Printer Codes" setting to (Yes). When you w ant to switch 
them off temporarily use the "Codes on/off" ( h""' 1 ""! 8~J ) from 
within the document. 

To use the Configure menu hold down the YELLOW h wotion l key and 
press SD; there are several menus move to the next by pressing GD 
key: 



Insert on/oF 
Word wrap 



Overtype or ♦ * to change. 
(Onl 



Decimal character 

Key repeat startup delay (108th sees) 
Key repeat period (100tn sees) 
Cursor F I ash per i od ( 1 <53th sees ) 



I Or. J 

(On) 

( .) 

IM) 

(5) 

<5fl> 



t + to move. St»p to Finish 

Onl 



Press ♦ * to change, t * to move. 

_ iow printer codes'? JNo) 

Shou spaces'? I No J 
Shou tabs and returns? OJ 

Shou status i nFormat i on? Mo) 

Shou ruler (No) 



To change one of the settings use 
use S §) to change the setting. 



Stop to Finish 

HcB 



to select the option then 



97 



Key Repeat Startup delay 

The time delay before a character starts to repeat when a key is 
held down can be changed. You may want to change this if, for 
example, you are not a trained typist and you often unintentionally 
repeat characters, however it will also cause a delay when you 
want to hold down a key, as when typing a line of hyphens or full 
stops. Increase the value to give a longer delay, decrease it to 
shorten the delay. 

Key Repeat 

The speed at which the character is repeated on screen as you 
hold down the key can be increased or decreased to suit your 
needs. To slow down increase the value, to speed up decrease 
the value. 

Cursor Flash Period 

Change the flash speed of the cursor, to slow down increase the 

value, to speed up decrease the value. 



98 



Printing 



*}■ rtVWjITft* 



-<*?* 



Most printers will be able to print your Notepad documents, 
although they may not be able to print all the various styles (bold 
or italic for example) on paper that are available in the word 
processor, 

Connect to the Printer 

Connect your Notepad to the printer using a standard parallel 
Centronics printer lead (or a serial lead if the printer is serial). Most 
printers will already have this type of lead connected, so just 
connect this into the PARALLEL or SERIAL port on the back of your 
Notepad. 

Switch on the Notepad and the printer. 

The printer must be switched on and be "on-line"; if you are not 
familiar with the printer you are using refer to the manual supplied 
with the printer. 

Select the Document you are going to print 

Hold down YELLOW [ Fu " c "°"l and press (L3, your list of documents is 
shown on the screen. Highlight the name of the document you 



shown on the screen, Hig hlig ht The r 
want to print by using G=L J=L LX; CD. 



Before you press C^D to start printing you should set up the Notepad 
for your printer using the Printing options menu as described below: 

Press the fc--"3 key, the following menus will show on screen: 



Overtype or ♦ ♦ to change* 

:art ot page number ( 1 J 

End Qt paae number (999) 

Hear letter quality / DraFt (NLQ) 

Cont i nuous pr i nt i ng? C Yes ) 

New p:»ge aFter print? (Yes) 

Form Feeds enabled? (Yes) 

Line Feeds printed? (Yes) 



4 to nove, .Stw to Finish 

W) ! 
NLQ 

Yes 
Yes 

Yes 

YesB 



Press «■ ■* 

7r inter 

Printer character set 

Printer port 

Serial port - Baud rote 

Serial port - Data/stop bits 

Serial port - Parity 

Ser i a I 



port - _ 

port - Handshake 



to change, 1 * 
(Simple) 
(ISM) 

[Parol lei) 
(9600) 
(8/1 ) 
(None) 
(On) 



to move, 
S imp I 

1 811 

Parol 

9600 

8/1 

None 

On! 



Stop to Finish 



lei 



99 



Press ED or CE to move down the menu. Use O or Ex- 
change an option. 

Select one of the printer types: 

Simple - This option will allow you to print on any printer but styles 
such as bold or italic will not be printed, just straightforward text; 
underlining might print although this will depend on the type of 

printer. 

IBM 24 pin - Whatever the make and model of your printer, if it is 

compatible with the IBM 24 pin Printers (check the manual supplied 
with the printer - you may have to adjust the printer in some way) 
you can use this setting. 

Epson 9 pin - Whatever the make and model of you printer if it is 
compatible with the Epson FX range (refer to the manual supplied 
with the printer) you can use this setting. 

Epson 24 pin - If your printer is compatible with the Epson LQ range 
you can use this setting (refer to your manual supplied with the 

printer). 

Canon BJ10E - Use this setting if you are using a BJ10E. 

Laserjet - If your printer is an HP Laserjet or compatible with one use 
this setting. For other laser printers use the Epson 24 pin setting if the 

printer can emulate it. 

Printer Character Set 

Use the Epson or IBM character set, if you want to print accented 
characters and £ signs you will need to select the IBM characters 
set. Whichever character set you select make sure that the printer 
is set up to print the same (refer to the manual supplied with your 

printer). 

Serial Port j 

These settings are for connection via the serial port, for printing to 
take place the printer and the Notepad must be set to the same 
values. 



i 



100 



The settings In your Notepad are trie best "settings to use, ff you can 
adjust your printer to these settings do so (refer the manual supplied 
with the printer). 

(If you are using the parallel port don't adjust these settings.) 

Starting to Print 

If you see the message "Plug in or switch on the printer 

« even though you have done so, check that paper is loaded 

and that it is switched "on-line". 

The "Finished printing" message may appear almost 
immediately even though the printer has just started, this is because 
the whole document has been stored in the printer's buffer 
memory. You can press S to exit and continue working. 

When you have finished setting up the printer press (H to leave the 
menu. Return to the print document screen, and with the highlight 
on the document you want to print press &J. 

If you have printing problems 

If the document does not print properly it is probably because you 
have not set-up the Notepad and/or printer correctly. Try setting 
the Notepad to a different type of printer using the Printer Options 
menu, you may find the correct setting using the "trial and error" 
method but, if ail else fails, you can use the "simple" setting. 



101 



Sending/Receiving documents 

In normal use you will probably just enter documents into your 
Notepad and then connect to a printer whenever you want to print 
them, For many people this will be all that is required. However, at 
some point you may find that you would like to transfer one of your 
documents from the Notepad to another computer (perhaps 
another Notepad even). Or you may have a document on another 
computer that you would like to transfer into the Notepad. All these 
things are possible. The Notepad includes functions to both send 
and receive documents. 

One good reason to transfer documents from the Notepad to 
another computer (probably an IBM PC compatible) is that you 
want to store them on that computers hard disk. The Notepad itself 
can only store a limited number of pages but, by regularly storing 
old documents on another computer with a much larger storage 
capacity, you can keep 100's or 1,000s of old documents for 
reference, 

Because the word processor built Into your Notepad is a 
development of the Protext word processor produced by Amor, 
you may like to use the Notepad for entering documents on the 
move and then transfer them across to a desktop computer which 
also can run Protext to work on them in more detail when you return 
to the office. There are versions of the Protext software to run on all 
well known types of computer (IBM compatibles, Amstrad PCW, 
Commodore Amiga, Atari ST, Acorn Archimedes) They are 
available from: 

Arnor Ltd 

611 Lincoln Road 

Peterborough . - 

PE1 3HA 

Tel: 0733 68909 

Fax: 0733 67299 * 

Even though you don't use Protext on your desktop computer you 

may still want to transfer documents to it to use in a different word 
processor. In this case you can still transfer the documents but they 
will lose all their special formatting such as rulers, bold, italic, 
underline, etc. 



102 



You can transfer documents in the other direction (from desktop 
into the Notepad) as well. You would do this when you want to 
retrieve a previously saved document or when you want to 
continue working on a document at home that you had started in 
the office. If you use Protext on the desktop machine then you can 
transfer documents to the Notepad before you go home, work on 
them in the evening or over weekends and then transfer them back 
to the desktop in the office and all the layout and text effects will 
be retained, Even if you don't use Protext you can still transfer the 
text back and forward between machines but special layouts can 
only be inserted just before you are about to print the final 
document. 

Note: In the following the word Ate is often used instead of 
document, The two things are really the same but the Notepad 
chooses to use the more correct and meaningful word "document". 
On PC's and other computers documents are stored in "files" on 

disk. Also note that the following tends to refer just to PC computers 
but what is said will apply equally as well to any other type of 

computer. 

Serial or Parallel transfers ? 

The Notepad can transfer documents either through its serial port 
using Simple or XModem file transfers. Or it can use the parallel port. 
Using the serial port you will just need a simple cable and some 
communication software for the PC or other computer that you are 
trying to connect to. 

If you want to use the parallel port you must use the Lapcat 
software and cable that is available from Amor at the above 
address, The advantage of using parallel transfers is two fold. Firstly 
you don't have any problems getting the right cable and making 
the right software settings and secondly, it is a faster method of 
transferring documents. Instructions on how to perform Lapcat 
transfer are given in the manual accompanying the Lapcat cable 
and software. 

Serial transfers 

Before you can transfer documents to and from the Notepad you 
must physically connect it to the other computer. There are two 

ways in which you might do this. 



103 



' Local" connection 



Direct conneetion. 




tf the other computer is located in the same room as the Notepad 
then it will only be necessary to use a simple cable to connect the 
two machines together. When you do this you connect the serial 
ports of the two computers together. The serial port on your 
Notepad is the 9 pin D shaped connector on the back of the 
machine. The actual connection for a serial port on another 
computer may vary from machine to machine. IBM PC compatible 
machines normally have either a 9 pin connector the same as the 
Notepad or they may have a 25 pin connector. 

"Remote" connection 



Connection using modems over telephone system. 





If the other computer is some distance away then you will need 
to make use of a device called a Modem that allows computers 
to send information over the telephone. Both the distant computer 
and the Notepad must have a modem attached to their serial 

ports. This second option is effectively the same as a local 
connection except that the Notepad is connected to a modem 
using a "straight through" cable in which "Transmit" (Tx) connects to 
"Transmit" and "Receive" (Rx) connects to "Receive" and so on. You 
establish the connection by using the serial terminal program built 



104 



into the Notepad and then prcn^ed^artflh^twflRectlon wefe , tb£&l 
- described below. 

The Cable to use 

The Notepad's serial port has a 9 pin, male, D-type connector wired 
as follows: 



Ptn Signal Abbreviation Direction 



J 2 3 4 5 

O O O O O / RS232 connector 
/ looking into ttw 

O O O O / back ot NCioo 



TS~7~ 



1 Mot connected 






2 Rocrtva data 


RX 


In 


3 tawanriM data 


TX 


Out Note: 


4 Data tsmWral ready 


DTR 


Out DTR |u»» OupUcstoa «TS 


6 bound 


GND 




C Not oonnacstd 






7 Raguact kg aand 


RTS 


Out 


• Claar id aand 


CTS 


In 


1 Mot connaaad 







The computer you are trying to connect to will probably have either 
a 9 pin or 25 pin, male, D-type connector. Assuming it is wired the 
same as an IBM compatible PC computer, the connections will be 
as follows: 



1 3 3 * S » 2 3 « t • 7 » 9 10 It 12 13 

o o o o o) SoirS: icoooooooooooo/ 'SS^SX 

V o o o oy 1 ™* °* ■ re <• •**» \ o o o o o o o o o o o oj *"* °* • po '" """ 

C 7 8 8 'l« IS ft 17 10 18 20 21 22 23 24 2S 



Signtd 


Ad™ * tinu l 


Da action 


Phi 


N* on 


9pal 


pm 


N» 


on 2S ski 


Ground 


OHO 






5 








7 


Trwwtt data 


TX 


Out 




3 








2 


Racatva data 


RX 


ki 




3 








3 


RequeM to send 


RTS 


Out 




7 








4 


Clear to send 


CTD 


ai 




a 








9 


Data sat ready 


DSR 


In 




6 








» 


Data termlna* ready 


DTR 


Out 




4 








20 


Ring indicator 


Rl 


ki 




8 








22 


Frama ground 
















1 



As you can see, both the Notepad and the other computer (if it 
has a nine pin connector) have their transmit data signal on pin 3 
and their receive data signal on pin 2. You cannot just connect the 
similar named signals because transmit would connect to transmit 
and receive to receive. The transmit from one end must be 
connected to the receive line at the other and vice versa. Some 
of the other signals must be crossed over in a similar way, 



105 



A cable that crosses over the various signals in this way is of 
called a Null Modem Cable. The correct wiring for cables to 
connect the Notepad to an IBM PC compatible are: 



9 pin to 9 pin 
NC100 




Null Modem Cable 
Other Computer 

2 RX 

3 TX 

4 DTR 

5 GND 

6 DSR 

7 RTS 

8 CTS 



NC100 
2 
3 
4 

5 
6 

7 
8 



Other 

3 
2 



9 pin to 25 pin 

NC100 

RX 2 

TX 3 

DTR 4 
GND 5 
DSR 6 
RTS 7 
CTS 8 



Null Modem Cable 
Other Computer 
2 TX 




RX 

RTS 

CTS 

DSR 

GND 



-20 DTR 



NC100 

2 
3 
4 
5 
6 
7 
8 



Other 

2 

3 

6 

7 

20 

5 

4 



If you are not able to buy a cable that is specifically designed for 
connecting the Notepad to other computers, you should be able 
to show these details to any cable manufacturer advertising In the 
computing press and you will find that they will easily be able to 
make up the right cable for you. 

Making the software connect 

Once you have plugged the correctly wired cable into both the 
Notepad and the other computer you are trying to connect to, you 
are ready to try and see if the two will communicate. The Notepad 
already has the necessary software to do this built-in. 

On the other machine you will need to use some communications 
software. The software you use will depend on the type of 
computer but, for example, if you are using a PC compatible that 
has a copy of Windows 3 then you already have the necessary 
software. There is a program called Terminal included in Windows 
that will do. The communications software you use can be very 
simple indeed although it would be best if it supports Xmodem file 
transfers. 

Setting the Notepad for the right type of transfer 

The very first thing to do before starting to try and make the 
software connection with the Notepad is to check that the file 



106 



transfer port \s-4^i^pf^if-aer$>^to(xe the:- format to s©r*d ; $** 
documents in. 

From the very top menu of the Notepad: 



m mm mm fBHIWUBlIT 




>'— ' 


To use the 

WORD PROCESSOR 

Press 
YELLOU S. RED 




1 cmi ij 

□ □□ 
□□□ 

nnn| 


To use the 
CALCULATOR 

Press 
YELLOW & GREEN 




tiimn 


To us© the 
dihr? / CLOCK 
ADDRESS BOOK 

Press- 
YELLOU & BLUE 




" 

















Press the G^S key to access the system configuration menu: 



.'ouer OPP delay (mins.. 0=Never) 
Preserve context during pouer oPP 
Document dote display 
Document transfer port ond f ormat 



St i c ky sh i Pt keys? 
7 i me a i sp 1 ou Pormo 
Set t iroe and dote 



Use t + +■ and ■». Stof to Finish 

C 5 ) B»m 

(No) 

(Not shown) 

(Serial/Protext ) 

(No) 

(24 hour) 



Now set the "Document transfer port and format" to the correct 

setting. There are four possible options: 

Seriai/Protext 

Serial/ASCII 

Lapcot/Protext 

Lapcat/ASCit . . . 

The Serial or Lapcat choice determines if the serial or parallel port 
will be used. Only choose the Lapcat options if you have purchased 

the necessary cable and software from Arnor. 

By the way, if you ever attempt to transfer files using the serial port 
and find that it does not work check this setting first. 

The choice of Protext or ASCIi determines whether the documents 
sent from the Notepad to a PC will retain all of their special 
formatting codes which the PC/PCW/Amiga/St/ Archimedes version 
of Protext will understand. Set this to Protext if you are going to use 
the Protext word processing software (available from Arnor) on your 
other computer, If not set it to ASCII. In this second case do not 
expect formatting codes (such as bold, italic, underline, etc.) to be 
retained. 



107 



The Notepad's Serial Terminal program 

When first making the connection, and before transferring any 
documents, it is probably best on the Notepad tp call up its own 
Serial terminal program, You do this by pressing l F "" c "°" lc -J^When 
you are using the Terminal program you will find that the &3 key 
brings up a screen for setting various features related to printing, 
on the second page are items that set up the serial port. As 
explained below, you shouldn't need to change these settings. 
Only do so if the software you are using cannot be configured to 
match the Notepad settings. 

Without getting into long discussions about serial connections 

<which can be a very complicated subject) It is only really 
necessary for you to know that there are certain values associated 
with the serial port that must be set correctly before you can get 
two computers to communicate. Both ends should be set to the 

same values. 

The Baud rate is just a measure of the speed at which the 
computers communicate. It can be set to various values such as 
300, 1200, 2400, 4800, 9600). For a direct connection it is probably 
best just to leave it at the 9600 setting that it defaults to. 

The other things that can be set that affect the serial port are the 
number of Data bits, the Parity, and the number of Stop bits, It isn't 

important to know what these things are - just to ensure that both 
computers are set to the same values. Data bits should always be 
set to 8, stop bits should be set to 1 and the Parity should be set to 
None, The Notepad allows you to change these things if the 
software at the other end does not present a suitable choice, but 
almost all terminal software does allow these things to be changed 
and almost all will choose 9600, 8 data, No parity, 1 Stop bit as the 
default setting anyway. By the way, if you are using the Terminal 
program in Windows 3 note that it defaults to a baud rate of 1 200 
dnd should be changed to 9600 through the Settings/ 
Communications... menu entry. 

Once you have the machines connected and they are both 
running terminal software you should find that if you type 
characters on the Notepad keyboard they appear on the screen 
of the other computer and vice versa. Each time you connect the 
Notepad to another computer it would be ad visable to start by 
entering the Notepad's Serial Terminal program ( P un " iM D ) and just 

108 



type a few characters on each keyboard to make sure that 

transmit and receive are working OK. There is no point in spending 
a long time trying to transfer files only to find that the fundamental 
connection that allows characters to be sent in both directions was 
not working. 

Once you have established a sound connection between the two 
machines you should then be able to transfer files between the two. 
If you find that typing on one machine does cause something to 

appear on the other but the characters are just meaningless 
rubbish then it is probably because one of the baud rate, data bits, 
stop bits or parity settings are not correctly matched. 

Note: The RS232 (Serial) port on the NC 100 uses signals at a higher 
levels than normally used inside the Notepad. This means that the 
batteries will drain at a faster rate than normal when making serial 
transfers, it may be an idea to run the Notepad from the mains 
adaptor when transferring files. 

Choosing the correct transfer method 

The Notepad can use two different types of file transfer. There is a 
very simple form called Simple ASCI! file transfer and a more 
powerful, versatile and reliable method called Xmodem. We 
suggest you always use Xmodem file transfer whenever possible. 
Xmodem file transfer breaks up the information to be sent into small 
packets and sends each with some extra information that the 
receiving end can use to make sure that no faults were introduced, 

Simple ASCII document transfers 

The simplest form of file/document transfer is ASCII. This is provided 
so that people who cannot find software to support Xmodem 
transfer can still connect their Notepad to other computers. When 
you ask the Notepad to send a document using Simple ASCII it just 
sends each character from the document you choose as if you 
v/ere typing them directly in the serial terminal program. On the 
computer that is receiving the file you just have to switch its ASCII 
capture on before starling to send the file, Once the Notepad has 
Inished sending the file you can switch the capture off on the PC 
and the information that has been sent will be written to a file. 

A/hen transferring files from a PC to the Notepad using ASCII transfer 
/ou start the receipt of the document on the Notepad. It will wait 



109 



A 



indefinitely for the first character to be transmitted (you can always 
press S if you didn't want to transfer a file). As soon as it has 
received the first character it then allows a maximum of 2.5 
seconds for each subsequent character to be received. If a longer 
delay is encountered then the Notepad assumes that the other end 
has finished transmission. Stopping transfers in this way means that 
there is no need for End of File characters to be sent. 

To send a file, from the Notepad to a PC, 
using the simple Send option : 

1 Establish the connection. 

2 Make sure the receiving end is ready to receive the file. This will 
usually involve giving some sort of command to initiate an ASCII 
capture or "download". Because the Notepad can have longer 
filenames than on PCs (and use a bigger range of characters) 
you may have to change the name you give the file to be 
received at the PC end. 

3 I n the Notepad switch to the List Stored documents screen 
( t=""ction |fi ~h is a q U i C k W ay to switch to this screen). 

4 Position the cursor over the document to send. 

5 Press the S key and select the T»Transfer option . In the mem 
that appears press (El to send the document using simple Send 

6 Once the Notepad has sent the document it will tell you hov> 
many characters were sent and will invite you to Tress Stop tc 

exit". Doing so will take you back to the list of stored documents' 

7 At the receiving end stop the file transfer. In some software thi: 
may be as easy as just pressing the Esc key, while in others yot 
may have to give a command or select a menu entry to dc 
this. 

To receive a file, into the Notepad from a PC, 
using simple Receive option: 

1 Establish the connection 

2 You must start the reception of the file on the Notepad before 

starting to send it from the other computer. Switch to the Lis 
Stored documents screen <p^(E3 is a quick way to switch t< 

this screen). 



110 



3 Press the 1^3 key and select the T»Transfer option. In the menu 
that appears press lO to receive the document using Simple 
transfer. 

4 You will then be asked to give a name for the document that 
is about to be received. You could just type the same name as 
used on the PC (8 characters, a full stop, then 3 characters) 

5 Now you can start the transmission of the file (document) from 
the PC, The way this is done will differ from software to software 
but it will often be described as "Send Text/ ASCII file" or perhaps 
"ASCII upload". 

6 Once the Notepad has received the document (when there 
was a gap greater than 2.5 seconds in transmission) it will tell 
you how many characters were sent and will invite you to "Press 
Stop to exit". Doing so will take you back to the list of stored 
documents. 

XModem file transfers 

You should always choose to use Xmodem file transfers in 
preference to the simple Send and Receive options. Xmodem is a 
far more reliable method to use and is supported by virtually every 
piece of communication software you might use. 

Note that the Xmodem transfer in the Notepad is 
'Xmodem/Checksum" rather than "Xmodem/CRC". This older 
method has been chosen to be as compatible with as many pieces 
of software as possible (all Xmodem/CRC should switch down to 
using Xmodem/Checksum). A side effect of this when transferring 
files to software that uses Xmodem/CRC is that it can take a few 
seconds to start while the software decides to switch back to the 
checksum method. 

To send a file, from the Notepad to a PC, 
using Xmodem send option 

1 Establish the connection 

2 In the Notepad switch to the List Stored documents screen 
ft urctmnj fi 3 ] j s a q U j C i< wa y f Q sw itct~i to this screen). 

3 Position the cursor over the document to send. 



Ill 



4 Press (53 and select the T»Transfer option then press ED to 
send the document using Xmodem transfer. Note that you start 
the send operation before starting the receive operation at the 
other computer. This is different to the order when using the 

simple Send. 

5 Once you have started the send of the file you must instruct the 

other end to start receiving it. This wiii depend on the software 
you use but you may find it called "Xmodem download". You 
will be asked to give a filename that the information will be 
stored in on that computer. 

6 Once you start the Xmodem receive on the other computer the 
information will be transferred. You will see a counter on the 
Notepad showing you how many characters it has sent. 

7 The Notepad will eventually finish sending alt the characters 
and will invite you to press any key to continue. At the PC end 
it will automatically finish the transfer and write the data into the 
file whose name you gave earlier. 

Note that when the Notepad telis you how many characters were 

sent it is often a number larger than the actual number of 
characters in the document. The reason for this is that Xmodem 
always rounds up the number of characters to send to a multiple 
of 128. 

It is possible to perform the transfer by starting the PC receiving 
before the Notepad starts sending but there will be a few second 
delay while the two machines synchronise. 

To receive a file, into the Notepad from a PC, 
using Xmodem receive option: 

1 Establish the connection. 

2 Switch to the Notepad's List stored documents screen 
(f^HFTl is a quick way to switch to this screen), 

3 Press O and then select the T»1Vansfer option. In the menu 
that appears press the CD key. 

4 Type in the name that you want to store the received 
document in but do not press E±J yet because you must start 

the Xmodem send on the PC first. 



112 



5 At the PC end give the command to the software to start 
sending the chosen file. This may be called something like 
"Xmodem upload". 

6 Once the PC has started to send the file hit ED on the Notepad 
to start receiving the file. 

8 When the transfer is complete the Notepad will invite you to 
"Press Stop to exit". 

Sending and receiving the contents 
of the Address Book 

The previous description has explained how to send and receive 
documents using the Notepad. It is also possible to send and 
receive the contents of the Address Book and the method used is 

almost the same as for document transfers. 

To send the contents of your address book you must go to the 
Notepad's System configuration menu: 



Use t + 4- and +. 8wp».to Finish 



,=ouer OFF delay I reins. . ._ 

Preserve context during pouer ofr (Not 

Document dote display, I Not . shoun ) 

Document transFer port and For»ot I Ser i a I /Protext ) 

Sticky shiFt keys"? (No) 

Time display Format 124 hour) 
Set t ime and date 



This is accessed by pressing S on the first screen of the Notepad. 
Find the option that says "Document date/size display" and set it 
to something other than "Not shown", Now, when you return to the 
List stored documents you fill find that a new entry "ADDRESS BOOK" 
has appeared. This is special document that holds the Address Book 
information but it is not possible to edit it because the information 
is stored in a special format. 

This file can be sent from the Notepad using the simple or Xmodem 
send options as described above. 

To receive the Address Book contents from a PC into the Notepad 
there are special entries in the transfer menu that are accessed by 
pressing I^D at the list stored documents screen, However, once 
these options have been chosen the method of use is exactly as 

described above for receiving documents. 



113 



r 4 

Stored Commands 

When typing documents, any line that starts with the right angle 
bracket character (>) in column one is not just stored as another 
line of text in your document. Instead, it is interpreted as a special 
command to the word processor. These commands are called 
"Stored commands" because they are stored away in each 
document that they are used in but are not printed, 

Apart from rulers, the angle bracket is always followed by a two 
letter code that identifies the command. These command names 
are chosen to try and help you remember them so, for example, 
HE is HEader and FO is FOoter. 

You may not realise this but you may already be familiar with "stored 
commands", If you have changed the layout of your text using a 
different ruler, or if you have added headers or footers from the 
Menu option (which just insert an >HE or >FO stored command) 
then you have already used stored commands. 

There are two types of stored command, those that are acted upon 
immediately and those that only have any effect when the 
document is printed. 

An example of an immediate stored command is >PA. This is the 
PAge break command and forces the next line that is typed to start 
on a new page. Normally, when you type, if you haven't changed 
the default settings, you will find that you can type 60 lines before 
the line that marks the end of a page appears. However, if you start 
a new line with >PA and then press U3 you will find that the current 
page is finished and the cursor starts at the top of a new page after 
the page break bar. 

An example of a stored command that is only acted upon when 
the document is printed is the >PO (Print Odd pages) command. 
This tells the word processor to only print the odd pages of your 
document and is useful if you want to print on both sides of some 
paper to produce a book or magazine. You print the odd pages 
on one side of the paper and then turn it over and run it through 
the printer again printing the even pages on the other side (using 
the >PE command). Because it is only acted on at print time, 
entering >PO on a new line has no obvious effect while you are still 
writing a document in the word processor. 



114 



Because st&^c6mfnands are aaWttpdfMnSr Iftdh" formiflg 
part of your document, the word processor does not count any line 
that starts with an angle bracket when it is calculating where one 

page ends and the next begins. Also, even if you have got bold, 
italic or underline showing on screen, lines starting with ">" are not 
affected by these things, 

If you start a line with the angle bracket character the word 
processor checks to see if it te an immediate command that it 
should act upon when you press 3. If it recognises it as such then 
the correct action is taken and the line is also stored in the 
document. Otherwise it just enters the line into the document ana 
no further action is taken at this time. When you subsequently come 
to print the document a second check is made for any stored 
commands, If, at this time a line is found that starts with an angle 
bracket but the two letters that follow are not a recognised 
command then it will stop printing and display the message: 

Unknown stored command 
press a key to continue ... 

A number of the stored commands just provide another way of 
setting the same options as found in some of the menus. When a 
stored command is used it over-rides the setting in a menu. For 
example, if you have set a page length of 66 in the Layout menu 
!■= ■"""*>"][? T ] and then include a >PL 35 command in your document, 
the word processor will assume a page length of 35 not 66, 

There are 60 stored commands that the word processor recognises. 
They generally fall into one of five categories. 

There are those that are used for defining the page layout - setting 
the various margins, length of page, etc. 

A collection of the commands are used for page formatting - 

adding header and footer text to each page when a document is 
printed, controlling the printing of odd/even pages, etc. 

There are also commands that affect the operation of the printer. 
Allowing printer control codes to be sent directly to the printer and 

affecting whether micro spacing is used for example. 

There are some miscellaneous commands. For example, you can 

use a stored command to add comments to your documents to 



115 



describe the contents for your own future reference but this will not 

print. 

Perhaps the most powerful, but also the most difficult to understand 
stored commands are those that are used for mail merge, Mail 
merge is the name given to the process where you have a standard 
letter that is printed several times inserting a different name in 
certain places each time it is printed. If you have ever received a 
letter saying "Dear Mr your name, you could win £100,000. All you 
have to do Mr. your name is ...." then you have received a mail 
merged letter. 

The following is an alphabetic list of all the stored commands with 
a short description of their function. This should be used when you 
just want a quick reminder of the command to use. Following this 
is a more detailed description of each command in sections 
divided as described above. 

The list may look a bit daunting at first but do bear in mind that a 
lot of the commands are used for the complex subject of mail 
merge. You don't need worry about these unless you actually 
intend to use the feature, 



Command 


Name 


Type Immediate 


AV 


Ask for Variable 


Mail merge 


No 


BM 


Bottom Margin 


Layout 


Yes 


CE 


CEntre 


Formatting 


Yes 


CF 


Close File 


Mail merge 


No 


CO 


Comment 


Miscellaneous 


Yes 


CP 


Continuous Printing 


Formatting 


No 


cs 


Clear Screen 


Miscellaneous 


No 


cw 


define Character Width 


Printer 


No 


DF 


Define data File 


Mail merge 


No 


DM 


Display Message 


Miscellaneous 


No 


EA 


End printing At page 


Formatting 


No 


EF 


Even page Footer 


Formatting 


No 


EH 


Even page Header 


Formatting 


No 


El 


End If 


Mail merge 


No 


EL 


Else 


Mail merge 


No 


EM 


Even side Margin 


Layout 


No 


EP 


Even Page throw 


Formatting 


No 


FF 


Form Feed codes 


Formatting 


No 


FM 


Footer Margin 


Layout 


Yes 



116 



FO"^" 


Footer ,!j ***" '""■" w "' 


FP 


Format whilst Printing 


HE 


Header 


HM 


Header Margin 


ID 


If Defined 


IE 


If Exhausted 


IF 


If 


IN 


Insert 


!U 


If Undefined 


LS 


Line Spacing 


MC 


Microspace Code 


MS 


Microspacing 


NC 


Number of Copies 


NP 


New Page after print 


oc 


Output Code to printer 


OF 


Odd page Footer 


OH 


Odd page Header 


OM 


Odd side Margin 


OP 


Odd Page throw 


PA 


PAge throw 


PE 


Print Even pages 


PL 


Page Length 


PN 


Page Number 


PO 


Print Odd pages 


PP 


Proportional Printing 


RJ 


Right Justification 


RP 


RePeat 


RU 


Read variable Unconditional 


RV 


Read Variable 


SA 


Start At page 


SK 


SKip 


SM 


Side Margin 


ST 


STop printing 


SV 


Set Variable 


TM 


Top Margin 


UN 


UNtil 


WC 


Write file Close 


WF 


Write File 


WM 


Write Message 


WT 


WaiT and display 


ZM 


Zero Margins 



Formatting ''■ Na'' 

Formatting No 

Formatting No 

Layout Yes 

Mail merge No 

Mail merge No 

Mail merge No 

Miscellaneous No 

Mail merge No 

Formatting No 

Printer No 

Printer No 

Formatting No 

Formatting No 

Printer No 

Formatting No 

Formatting No 

Layout No 

Formatting No 

Formatting No 

Formatting No 

Layout Yes 

Formatting Yes 

Formatting No 

Printer No 

Formatting No 

Mail merge No 

Mail merge No 

Mail merge No 

Formatting No 

Mail merge No 

Layout No 

Miscellaneous No 

Mail merge No 

Layout Yes 

Mail merge No 

Mail merge No 

Mail merge No 

Mail merge No 

Miscellaneous No 

Layout Yes 



117 



The following pages contain a more detailed description of i 
command listed above. The commands are grouped together 
according to the type of the command. Beneath the name of 
each command is a line described as "Syntax:". This shows exactly 
how you use the command in a document, For example, the syntax 
of the Page Length (PL) command is shown as: 

Syntax: >PL number 

The word number in italics means that whenever you use the PL 

command it should be followed by a number (not just the word 
number). In this case the number you give is the number of lines 
per page that you would like to use, To help you understand the 
syntax of the command, most descriptions include at least one 
example. An example of the PL command might be: 

>PL 72 

which tells the word processor that the paper you are going to print 
on has 72 lines. 

Page Layout commands 

Most of these commands duplicate the function of items in the 

Layout menu that is accessed by pressing E^f3 and It J while 
editing a document. Those layout menu entries apply to the current 
document and all subsequent documents that you write until you 
change the settings. The stored commands can be used to 
over-ride the settings for just one special document (for example, 
if you want to quickly print some labels but leave the E^rJlizJ 
settings at their normal values). 

BM Bottom Margin 

Syntax: >BM number 

The BM command is used to specify a value for the bottom margin 
which is the number of blank lines left at the bottom of each page 
after all the text (and possibly footer) have been printed. If you 
used the command: 

>BM 3 ; u ;.-,,- 

The word processor would know that it must not print on the last 
three lines of the page. The reason you specify a bottom margin is 
because most printers cannot print right to the bottom of a page. 



118 



The printer usuottytoses gifp-orrlhe-pteee- of paper about 3 lines 
from the end of the page. Some laser printers are able to print right 
down to the very last line of a piece of paper but even there it is 
usually better to leave a margin at the bottom of the page as it 
looks more professional. If no BM command is used a value of 3 is 
assumed. 

EM Even side Margin 

Syntax: >EM number 

The Even side margin command is followed by a number which tells 
the word processor how many characters from the left edge of the 
page it should start printing the even numOered pages in your 
document. You may notice that there is a SM command available 
which defines the Side Margin for every page. The EM and OM 
commands allow different side margins to be defined for left and 
right pages while the SM command applies to all pages. You would 
use the SM command when every page of your document is 
identical (for example a memo or a letter). However, if you were 
writing a book it is usual for the right hand, odd numbered, pages 
to have a larger side margin than the left pages. This is because 
the book is bound together at the left hand edge of the right 
pages. If you were writing a book you might include the following 
two lines at the top of the document: 

>em 8 

>OM 12 

This would mean that printing on the even numbered, left hand 
pages would start 8 characters in from the edge of the paper while 
the printing of the odd numbered left hand pages would start at 
12 characters in from the edge. This would allow an extra 4 

character margin on the right hand pages to allow for the book 
binding. A value of 5 is assumed if no actual >EM command is used, 

FM Footer Margin 

Syntax: >FM number 

The FM command is followed by a number which defines how many 
lines at the bottom of a page should be reserved for printing the 
footer text in. This area is positioned after the main body of text on 
the page but before the bottom margin (the area which cannot 
oe printed on -see the BM command). The Footer Margin area is 
only used if footers are defined using the FO, EF or OF commands. 



119 



The value used if no FM command is used* 2 rf footers are enabled', 

otherwise it is zero. 

HM Header Margin 

Syntax: >HM number 

The HM command is similar to the FM command except that it is 
used to specify the number of lines below the top margin (see TM 
command) but above the main page body that are reserved for 
printing the header text in. If no header is defined then a value of 
zero is used for HM otherwise it will assume the value 2, An example 
HM command might be: 

>HM 3 

This would reserve three lines at the top of the page (below the top 
margin) where header text would be printed. 

OM Odd side Margin 

Syntax: >OM number 

The OM command is very similar to the EM command but acts on 

odd pages rather than even pages. For a description and example 
see the EM command. If no OM command is used then a default 
value of 5 is used 

PL Page Length 

Syntax >^L dumber . '■ ' '■ 

The PL command e used to tell the word processor how long the 
paper you are goog to print on is. Most printers print six iines to the 
inch so by measuring a piece of paper you can work out how many 
iines long rt will be A4 paper is 72 lines long. Continuous, 11* paper 
is 66 lines long. A \S label is 9 lines long and a 2" label is 12 lines 
long. 

The word processor takes the value you give for page length and 

subtracts f-c~ ■■ - *-e value of top and bottom margins (BM and 
TM comma-.: "~e<e are the areas that cannot be printed on 
because the c--*e» cannot hold the stationery, If headers and 
footers are being used then the word processor further subtracts 
the FM and HM vatues The amount left is the number of lines in the 
main body or the page that you can enter text on. 

When printing on continuous stationary such as fan fold 11" paper 

or labels the top ana bottom margins may be set to zero and if no 

120 



headers and footers are used then the number of tines that the 
word processor will allow you to enter on each page is the same 
as the page length. Another way of putting this is to say that the 

actual number of lines that can be used on a page are: 

PL - TM - BM (- HM if headers on) (- FM if footers on) 

An example of the PL command might be: 

>E>L 9 

This would tell the word processor that there were only 9 lines to 
each page (1 ,5" labels). 

SM Side Margin 

Syntax: >SM number 

The SM command is followed by a number that tells the word 

processor how many characters from the left hand edge of the 
page it should start printing at. The SM command applies to all 
pages in a document. If you want to have different values for odd 
and even pages then you should use the EM and OM commands 
instead. If you do not give an SM command then a value of 5 is 
used. 

TM Top Margin 

Syntax: >TM number 

The Top Margin is the number of lines at the top of a page where 

the word processor will not attempt to print. The reason for defining 
a tap margin is that most printers cannot fully grip a piece of paper 
until it has been fed a few lines into the printer. Most printers will not 
oe able to print on at least the top 3 lines of a page. However, if 
you use continuous paper (with holes up the edge) then the printer 
can print on every line so you could set TM to zero. However, 
documents look more professional if a few lines are left blank at the 
top and bottom of a page. If no TM command is given a value of 
3 is assumed. If you were to use the command: 

>TM 6 

The word processor would leave 6 lines blank at the top of each 

page, 



121 



ZM Zero Margins 

Syntax: >ZM 

This command sets all margins to be zero. This c an I De useful if you 
are using continuous paper and want to print a draft copy of a 
document without having it correctly spaced out on each page. 

Page Formatting commands 

Several of these stored commands achieve the same -effect ^ 
settinas in some of the menus. For example, CP. EA SA achieve 
sfm lafeffects to the settings in the menu you see when you press 
n^lf key at the print document screen. The stored commands 
only take effect for the document in which they appear while the 
menu entries apply to all documents until the settings are changed. 

CE CEntre 

Syntax: >CE text 

The CE command is followed by text on the same line which , will ; be 

centred when the document is printed. You may wonder why you 
would wish to leave centring until the document is printed when 
^ou can always achieve the effect using E±l WelL the main use 
Is for when the text that may be centred could be of vanable 
length This will occur when using mail merge and he text to be 
centred contains a mail merge variable. For example: 

>CE Memorandum to finamefi 

might print as: 

Memorandum to Mr. Sugar 

CP Continuous Printing 

Syntax: >CP ON 
or: >CP OFF 

The CP command is always followed by the word ON or OFF and 
switches continuous printing on or off. When Continuous printing is 
on the word processor assumes that your printer is toadedwth 
continuous (fan fold) paper that has tractor holes up he edges Jt 
thPn sends every page of the document to be printed at once 
wiThouTc ?oreak% P he 9 n CP is switched to Off, the word processor 
assumes you are printing on separate, sing e sheets of paper so if 
pauses before each page is printed and allows you to load single 



122 



sheets into the printer. Onbe "the paper' is in place and the printer 
is switched on-line you press the Space Bar to print the next page. 
If you print to a laser printer or other printer that has a sheet feeder 
you will probably want to tel! the word processor that it is using 
continuous paper by using the CP ON command. The CP 
command has the same effect as the "Continuous printing?" switch 
in the print menu (accessed by pressing fc-^3 at the print document 
screen) 

EA End printing At page 
Syntax: >EA number 

This command tells the word processor the number of the last page 
you want printed. Normally it will print every page up to the last 
page in the document. The EA command may be used together 
with the SA command which defines which page to start printing 
at. For example, say you have a 10 page document and include 
the commands: 

>SA 3 
>EA 7 

at the top of the document then, when it is printed, only pages 3 
to 7 will be printed. It is also possible to select a range of pages to 
print using the settings in the print menu but they apply to all 
documents while the stored commands only apply to the 
document in which they are used. 

EF Even page Footer 
Syntax: >EF text 
or: >EFn text 

The EF command is used to define a line of text that will be printed 
within the footer margin area of every even page of a document. 
The simplest form of commands for putting in footers is the FO 
command which applies to every page. However, the EF and OF 
commands allow different footers to be applied to even and odd 
pages. This would be useful, for example, if you were writing a book 
and wanted to put the page number at the right hand end on the 
foot of every right (odd) page and the page number at the left on 
the foot of every left (even) page. An example of the EF command 
might be: 

>EF Page % 

>OF Fa 9 e % 



123 



Which would result in every even page having the page number 
on the left and the odd pages having the page number on the 
right. The "%" symbol has a special meaning in headers and footers. 
Instead of just printing the symbol it is filled in with the current page 
number as it is printed. 

Once a footer has been defined the word processor will start to 

reserve the footer margin area for printing the footer in. Before then 
it would assume the footer margin were zero. 

Multiple line even page footers may used. The first line would be 
defined with the command >EF text and subsequent lines would 
use >EF2 text, >EF3 text and so on up to >EF9 text 

EH Even page Header 

Syntax: >EH text 
or: >EHn text 

The EH command is very similar to the EF command except that it 

defines the header for every even page rather than the footer. Just 
like the EF command, once the EH command has been given the 
word processor will start to reserve the header margin area for 
printing the header text in, An example of the EH command might 
be to put the title of a book on the top of every left hand page. 
At the same time you might want to put the chapter title at the top 
of every right hand (odd) page: 

>EH Fly Fishing by J R Hartley 

>oh Tying flias 

Once again, multiple line even page headers may be created by 
following the >EH command by a number between 2 and 9 to 
define the 2nd, 3rd. 4th,. 9th line of even header. In fact, the EH 
command (as with all header and footer commands) can be 
combined with the commands that apply to ail pages to create 
headers where part of the header is common to all pages and part 
of it only occurs on odd or even pages. The following example may 
make this a little clearer: 

>HE First line of header on every page 

>ZH2 Second line of header on even pages 

>OH2 Second line of header on odd pages 

>HE3 Third line of header on every page 

>F0 This is the first line of footer on all pages 



124 



>EF2 This th« second lin« of footer on •v»n pag*s 
X>F2 This the second line of footer on odd pages 

EP Even Page throw 

Syntax: >EP 

or: >EP number 

The EP command is like the PA command that forces a new page 
to be started. However, the EP command has a further function in 
that it will always arrange for the next page to be an even 
numbered page. 

So, if the current page has an odd number it will just end it at the 
point the EP command is included and the next page will be the 
next even numbered page. However, if the current page were 
even numbered then, not only would it be ended, a whole, blank, 
odd numbered page would be inserted so that text would continue 
on the next even numbered page. This forces the next line to start 
at the top of a left hand (even numbered) page. 

If the EP command is followed by a number then the EP command 
will only have any effect if the number of blank lines remaining on 
the current page is less than or equal to the given number. So, for 
example, the command: 

>EP 10 

will force the next line to start at the top of an even numbered 
page if there are 10 or less lines remaining on the current page. 

FF Form Feed codes 

Syntax: >FF ON 
or: >FF OFF 

The FF command is always followed by the word ON or OFF. it tells 
the word processor whether or not you would like it to send a form 
feed character at the end of every page that is printed. The form 
feed character (number 12) is a special character used by some 
printers to tell them to finish printing the current page and move to 
the start of the next page, it may be necessary with some laser 
printers to switch the FF command ON so that each page is 
followed by a character 12. If no FF command is used it is switched 
Off and no form feed characters are sent. After the command: 

>FF ON 



125 



the word processor will send a form feed character at the encfof 
each page. This has the same effect as the "Form feeds enabled? 
setting in the print menu. 

FO Footer 

Syntax: >FO text 
or: >FOn text 
or: >FO OFF 
or: >FO ON 

The FO command is used to tell the word processor what text you 
would like to have printed on the foot of every page. Once an FO 
command is used the footer margin area will be reserved for 
printing the footer text in and the footer will be printed on the 
bottom line of the footer margin area. 

Multiple line footers can be used by following the first >FO line with 
subsequent >FO commands where the letters >FO are followed by 

a single digit between 2 and 9, 

Once a footer has been defined it will appear at the foot of every 

page printed. However, you can disable footers on any pages you 
choose by using the >FO command followed by the word OFF Any 
subsequent pages will not have a footer printed. If Jater ir .the 
document, the command >FO On is used the printing of footers will 
be resumed. 

if vou just use the command >FO ON without having previously 
defined a footer then a centralised page number will be printed 
on the foot of every page, 

If you want to include page numbers within a footer just put a ■%" 

sign where you would like the number to be pr.nted. It will be filled 
in with the correct value when the document is printed, if you want 
to include the "%" character in a footer use "%%" to print a single 
percent symbol. 

For an example of the various header and footer commands see 
the description of the EF and EH commands. 



126 



FP Format whilst Printing '-?'■ w*"* v ; ■ ■ ~'i ' ,; - "- 

Syntax: >FP ON 
or: >FP OFF 

The FP command is followed by the word ON or OFF and specifies 
whether the document should be reformatted while It is being 
printed. If no FP command is used then it is assumed to be OFF. The 
FP command is used in conjunction with the RJ command. The RJ 
command switches right justification on or off in the section of 
document following it. If you have sections of the document where 
RJ is switched on and others where it is switched off then you should 
also use the FP ON command to ensure that the justified sections 
are properly formatted prior to printing. 

HE Header 

Syntax: >HE text 
or: >HEn text 
or: >HE ON 
or: >HE OFF 

The HE command is used in exactly the same way as the FO 
command except that it defines and controls the printing of a 

header text in the header margin area at the top of each page. 
See the description of FO for more details. 

LS Line Spacing 
Syntax: >LS number 

The LS command defines the line spacing to be used when a 
document is printed. It has no effect on what you see on screen 
while editing. Normally line spacing is set to one so that lines are 
printed as you see then while editing. However, for manuscripts and 
scientific reports it is often necessary to have the lines double 
spaced when printed and this can be achieved with the 
command: 

>LS 2 

The LS command will also acfcept half line feed values that end in 
.5 (1.5, 2.5, etc.). But only some printers will be able to space text 
in half line spacing values. The LS command has the same function 
as the "Line spacing" setting in the Layo ut menu that is accessed 

by pressing [£J while holding down E""3 when typing a document. 



177 



NC Number of Copies ■ '" ; *^-~ " '"' ■'"•*'*" 

Syntax: >NC number 

This command specifies how many copies of the document should 
be printed. If no NC command is used the value of one is assumed. 
A command such as: 

>NC 3 

would result in three copies of a document being printed. 

NP New Page after print 

Syntax: >NP ON 
or: >NP OFF 

The NP command is used to switch on or off the printing of a blank 
page after a whole document has been printed, if no NP 
command is used the feature is switched OFF. The NP command is 
particularly useful when printing on continuous, fan-fold, paper as 
it moves the printer to the top of the next blank page after a 
document has been printed. This allows the document that has just 
been printed to be ripped off at the next line of perforations. The 
NP command has the same effect as the "New page after print? 
setting in the print document menu. 

OF Odd page Footer 

Syntax: >OF text 
or: >OFn text 

For a full description see the EF command. The OF command works 
in just the same way as the Even page Footer- command except 
that it defines the footer text for Odd (right hand) pages. A typical 
OF command might be: 

>OF This is printed at the foot of all odd pages 

Just like the other header and footer commands the OF command 
may be followed immediately by a digit 2 to 9 to define the 2nd to 
9th line of footer text. 



128 



OH Odd page Header ' ; Wi * ! ^^a aip - ~>'^ <■•'-*■ \ s? ■""* 

Syntax: >OH text 
or; >OHn fexf 

The OH command is similar to the EH command except that it 

defines the header to be used on odd numbered, right hand, 
pages. 

OP Odd Page throw 

Syntax: >OP 

or: >OP number 

The Odd Page throw command will cause the next line printed to 
start at the top of an odd page. If the current page is even 
numbered it will be at the start of the very next page. If the current 
page is already odd numbered then a blank, even numbered, 
page will be inserted so that the next line is at the start of an odd 
page. This would often be used when writing a book when you 
want to ensure that each chapter starts on a right hand page, if 
the OP command is followed by a number it will only take effect if 
the current page has that number (or fewer) blank lines remaining, 

PA PAge throw 

Syntax: >PA 

or: >PA number 

The PAge throw command will cause the current page to be ended 
and the next line of text will start printing at the top of the next 
page. If the PA command is followed by a number then it will only 
take effect if that number of blank lines or fewer remain on the 
current page. You can quickly insert a PA command into a 
document by pressing the r^j key while holding down tz:~3. 

PE Print Even pages 

Syntax: >PE ON 
or: >PE OFF 

The Print Even pages command, PE. when followed by the word ON 
will cause only the even pages of the current document to be 
printed. If the command >PE OFF is used then all pages will be 

printed. 

The reason for only printing even pages is so that a book or 
magazine can be printed on both sides of some sheets of paper. 



129 



First the odd pages are printed, Then the paper is turned over and 
the even pages are printed on the other side of the same paper, 

PN Page Number 

Syntax; >PN number 

The number following the PN command sets the number that the 
current page will have, subsequent pages will be renumbered 
accordingly. For example, if the command: 

>PN 10 

is used on a page then that page will be page 10 and the following 

page will be 1 1 and so on. The PN command is useful when writing 
separate chapters of a book and you want to ensure that the next 
chapter's page numbering continues on after the last page of the 
previous chapter. Page numbers can be made to appear on the 
printed pages by including the % symbol in either a header of 
footer definition. 

PO Print Odd pages 

Syntax: >PO ON 
or: >PO OFF 

When the PO ON command is used only the odd pages of a 

document will be printed. Using the command PO OFF will return 
things to normal so that ail pages are printed. 

As described under the PE command. The PE and PO commands 

are used together to first print the odd and then the even pages 
of a document on either side of the paper to be printed, 

RJ Right Justification 

Syntax: >RJ ON 
or: >RJ OFF 

The RJ command can be used to switch on or off the right 

justification of text in specific areas of a document. The lines 
following an RJ ON command will be justified while those following 
an RJ OFF command will have a ragged right margin, For this 
command to operate correctly the document should be 
reformatted during printing. This is accomplished by using the FP 
ON command. The setting of right justification for a whole 
document can be switched on or off using [zrX-J or setting the 



436 



option in the configuwi iiMibMiftftscessecf by pressing l F " nc,i °ill3 
while editing. 

SA Start At page 

Syntax: >SA number 

The SA command is used to define which page number printing 
should start at. Together with the EA command this allows only 
specified sections of a document to be printed. See the description 
of EA for more details. 

Printer commands 

CW define Character Width 

Syntax: >CW number 

This command is used to set the character width for micro spacing. 

Possible examples are: 

xm 10 (elite characters) 

xrw 7 (condensed) 

>cw 14 (condensed enlarged) 

MC Micro space Code 

Syntax: >MC code code... 

This command defines the sequence of codes that will move the 
print head by the smallest possible amount. The word processor 
uses this to evenly space the words in a line of justified text. A typical 
example use of the command might be: 

>MC 27 "L" 10 

Which will mean that every time the word processor wants to move 
the print head by the smallest possible amount it will send the 

above sequence, The actual sequence of codes used is 
dependent on the printer being used 

MS micro spacing 

Syntax: >MS ON 

or: >MS OFF ■ 

The MS command turns micro spacing on or off. When micro 
spacing is on the word processor will evenly distribute the extra 
space on each line that is justified. Normally it tries to distribute 
extra, whole, spaces along the line to perform the justification but 

131 



micro spacing allows it to property divide the extra space between 
every word and leads to a more professional looking result. 

However, the ability to use micro spacing is dependent on the 
printer that you use and it may be necessary to give the correct 
CW and MC commands before it can be used successfully. Fo 
some printers you only need as MS ON command but this a\\ 
depends on which printer you choose in the second screen of the 
Print document menu. 

OC Output Code to printer 

Syntax: >OC code code... 

The OC command is used to output codes to a printer. Normally, 

when you want to send special codes to a printer you just put a 
word in bold or italic or whatever and the word processor arranges 
to send the correct sequence of codes to the selected printer _to 
achieve the effect. However, there may be other effects that a 
printer can produce by sending it codes. You can use the OC 
command to put such a sequence of codes in your document. For 
example, when using an Epson compatible printer: 

>OC 27, "S", 1 

will send the codes that switch it into subscript printing while 

>OC 27, "T" 

will cancel the effect. See your printer manual for a list of the 
control codes that it understands. 

PP Proportional Printing 
Syntax: >PP ON 
or: >PP OFF 

The PP command switches proportional printing on or off. Normally 

ft is off if no PP command has been used. When PP is switched on 
the word processor no longer assumes that all characters are the 
same width when printed. Instead it will use its knowledge of the 
width of individual characters to produce a better justified 
appearance. For this to work the printer should be sent a code to 
switch it into a proportional font. This can be achieved by using the 
style menu "P - Proportional" entry to put the necessary code invour 
document. A quicker way of entering the code is to press EnU 
followed by ^J. 



132 



Miscellaneous commands ' a ^ ! y **-■' 

CO COmment 
Syntax; >CO text 
or: »> text 

This command can be followed by any text so that it appears in 
the document but will not appear when printed. This can be used 
to add a descriptive reminder at the start of a document to remind 
you later what a document contains. It can also be used to include 
annotations. For example: 

>CO This is chapters 2 and. 3 of my book on quantum mechanics 
>CO Draft number 3 - 11th March 1992 

Or, 

>» Must send memo to Mr. S about. the carrying case 

CS Clear Screen 

Syntax: >CS message 

The CS command will be interpreted when you come to print a 
document. It will cause the screen to be cleared and then any text 
on the CS command line will be displayed on the screen. The CS 
command would normally be used when mail merging to clear the 
screen and display an explanatory message about the data that is 
being asked for by subseguent AV commands. The CS command 
could be used more generally to print on the screen a description 
of the document that is being printed. For example: 

>CS Printing the second part of the stored command chapter 

DM Display Message 

Syntax: >DM message 

The message on the line following DM is printed during printing. 
Several DM commands might be used after a CS command to 
display a multiple line message on screen during printing. 

IN Insert 

Syntax: >IN document_name 

The Insert command is very powerful. For example. If you write a 
book (or even a single chapter) in several sections, each contained 
in a separate document you can produce a master document that 



133 



just includes a number of >IN commands to print all the vartdu*! 

together. For example: 

>C3 Printing the whole booX 

>IM "Stored cmds" 

>IN "title page" 

>IN "contents" 

>IN "Chapter 1" 

>IN "Chapter 2" 

>IN "Appendix." 

>IN "Index" 

The advantage of printing a book in this way is that the page 
numbering, headers, footers and margins defined in the first 
document will apply through the book unless over-ruled by a 
subsequent stored command. 

The IN command could also be used to build a document from 
standard paragraphs. You could keep each standard paragraph 
in a separate document and then build a final document by just 
using a few IN commands. For example: 

Dear Mr Smith 
>IN "thank you" 
>IN "widget info" 
>IN "contact us" 
Yours sincerely, 

Mr Bloggs 

ST STop 

Syntax: >ST message 

The ST command causes printing to stop as soon as it Is 
encountered. If a message is included on the >ST command line 
then that will be displayed on the screen. The ST command would 
usually be used when using the conditional printing facility provided 
by mail merge commands. 

WT WaiT and display 

Syntax: >WT message 

The WT command causes printing to be stopped temporarily and 
any message included on the WT command line will be displayed 



134 



on the screen. Printing will resume when any key is pressed. An 

example of this might be; 

>WT Make sure printer is loaded with 1.5" labels... 

This would be placed right at the start of a document. When the 
document was printed the message would be displayed allowing 
the user to put the right sort of paper into the printer before printing 
commences. 

Mail merge commands 

Mail merge is an extremely powerful feature of the word processor 
but unfortunately this inevitably leads to a certain amount of 
complication. The following is just a short description of each of the 
mail merge stored commands, following this is a description of the 
basics of mail merging but in a book this size it is difficult to include 
every aspect of such a large subject. 

AV Ask for Variable 

Syntax: AV string identifier number... 

This is used during mall merging and causes the word processor to 
stop while the document is being printed and ask for a value to be 
typed in which is then given to a variable. 

The meaning of the various parts of the command syntax are: 

string is the prompt displayed on the screen, identifier is the name 
of a variable into which the entered value will be stored and 
number is the maximum length of the input that will be expected. 

An example might be: 

>AV "Enter today's date", date 

or 

>AV "Type an invoice number", invnum, 6 

This command would stop and print the text in quotes and then 
wait for the user to type in a value. Only 6 characters would be 
allowed. 



106 



CF Close File : ■'**■ v -" r " ■'"''■' ■ * 
Syntax: >CF 

This closes a document file that was previously opened by the WF 
command The ability to write to a document is used when you 
want to capture what has been output from a mail merging session 
Into a document as well as just printing it. 

DF Define data File document 

Syntax: >DF document_name 

File is just a boffin word for document. This command is "fed Jo tell 
the word processor which document it should use to read the data 
fora mail merge operation from. A typical file (document) might 
include a list of names and addresses which would be used to print 
multiple copies of the same letter to different people. 

El End If 

Syntax: >EI 

The El command is used after a list of commands that will only be 
executed if the condition in a preceding IF command has been 
met, There are various forms of IF command - ID, IE, IF and IU. A 
typical conditional sequence might be: 

>IF town = "York" „i„ 

As a resident of York we think you may be particularly 
interested to hear of our weekly meeting held at York 

Minster. 
>EI 

EL Else 

Syntax: >EL 

The ELse command is used to end the section of commands and 

text to be included if an IF condition is met and to start a section 
of commands and text that will be used if the IF condition was no 
met. It would finally be terminated with an El command. For 

example: 

>IF telno = "" ,_'_*. 

As you haven't got a telephone please contact us by post. 

please call us as soon as possible on 0708 123456 



>KI 



f$6 



ID If Defined ■ ■ - ■"■■ *mt«>> \r*<- r-rr-i ,-. *■*•. ■' ■ - ' tftr"-^ 

Syntax: >ID identifier 

A check is made to see if the variable identifier has been defined, 
Only if it has will the following section up to the next >EL or >EI 
command be used. 

IE If Exhausted 

Syntax: >IE 

When mail merging data is read from a data file document and is 
jsed to fill in the various mail merge variables. Several similar letters 
■nay be printed in this way but it may be useful at the end of the 
orint run to perform some other action. This can be achieved using 
the IE command. The block of text and commands following an IE 
command up to the next EL or El will only be performed if the data 
file is exhausted. Say, for example, that for each letter that was 
orinted you had a variable called "count" recording the number 
orinted. At the end you could include the following: 

>IE 

>CS Mail merge finished, tcountfi copies printed. 
>EI 

IF If 

Syntax: >IF condition 

If the condition given inthe IF command is met then the subsequent 
block of text and commands up to the next EL or El is used. This is 

an extremely powerful command and allows many different kinds 
of conditions to be tested for. See the more detailed description of 
IF in the chapter on Mail Merge below. 

IU If Undefined 

Syntax: >IU identifier 

This tests to see if the variable Identifier is defined. Only If It Is 
undefined will the following block of text and commands up to the 
next EL or El be used. 

RP RePeat 

Syntax: >RP 

The RP command Is used to start a block of text and commands 
that will be used repeatedly. The end of the block is marked by a 
UN command which also sets a condition that must be met for the 



137 



repetition to cease. The following very simple example Vfll'pflfttiMi 

numbers 1 to 10: 

>3V count=l 
>RP 

Scountt 

>SV count=count +1 

>UN count > 10 

RU Read variable Unconditional 

Syntax: >RU identifier, identifier... 

The RU command will read data from the data file document that 
has been identified by the DF command and assign the data it 
reads to each identifier listed. The RU command reads 
unconditionally so that it is normally used with data files where 
every en try has the same number of fields. An example might be: 

>RU name, address 1, address2, address3, dummy 

RV Read Variable 

Syntax: >RV identifier identifier... ■ 

The RV command is used to read values from the data file and 

assign them to the list of variables. RV reads from the data file until 
it finds an empty field. It then stops reading and assigns a null value 
to any unfilled variables named on the RV command line. 

SKSKip 

Syntax: >SK condition 

If the given condition is true then the printing of the current 
document is terminated. You could for example read a long data 
file but only print out letters to people whose name was Smith using: 

>RV name, addrl , addr2 , addr3 
>SK name <> "Smith" 



The "<>" means "not equaP. 

SV Set Variable 

Syntax: >SV identifier = expression 

The SV command is used to set a variable, identifier to be equal to 
the result of an expression. The expression is formed using the 



138 



arithmetic operators' +, - , A"*. T7 means divide arrf*- fa§6tfif' 

multiply). 

The expression is evaluated in the order that the items in the 
calculation are encountered. It is not possible to change the 
precedence of expressions as parentheses cannot be used. If a 
variable name appears in an expression its contents will be used if 
: t is numeric. Complex expressions can be formed by the use of 
temporary variables to hold the intermediate result, 

>SV temp = valuel + value2 + value3 
>3V average = temp / 3 

'he above achieves the same effect as the expression: 
average = (value 1 + value2 + value3) / 3 

UN Until 

Syntax: >UN condition 

T he UN command is used at the end of a block started with the RP 
:RePeat) command. All the text and commands between RP and 
JN will be used repeatedly until the condition in the UN command 
oecomes true. 

WC Write file Close 

Syntax: >WC 

"he WC command closes a write file that has been opened by the 
vVF command. 

WF Write File 

Syntax: >WF document 
or: >WF ON 
or: >WF OFF 

The WF command is used to open a file (document) that will have 
messages written to it. This allows the output of a mail merge run to 
oe written to a file as well as being printed. The WF command used 
vith either ON or OFF to start or stop the writing of data to a file. A 

/ery simple example might be: 

>WF "Write test" 

>WF ON 

This is a line of text that will be written to "Write Test" 

>WF OFF 



T39 



1 

This line will be printed on the printer. -^~:^1 

, >wir on 

This is the second line written to the file. 

>WC 

printed on the printer. 

WM Write Message 
Syntax: >WM message 

«. command is used J*^ £ ^^and'wil 
5?^ t o°oTe d eve^ f me « O* c^and .as deen used. 



140 



Mail merge 



.-■J. : .y f^tg 



Mail merge is, without doubt, the most powerful feature of the word 
processor built into your Notepad. In its simplest form it will allow 
you to make a simple template letter and then print multiple copies 
with different peoples name and addresses on each. This is useful 
for printing things such as club newsletters. 

The actual range of mail merge commands available is quite large 
and, in effect, forms the basis of a very simple programming 
language. For example, type the following lines into a new 
document and then Stop editing and print it. (Don't worry if you 
don't understand what the commands mean yet) 

>C3 This "program" prints the 7 times table 
>WT Hit any key to start. . . 
>SV count = 1 

>RP 

>SV result = count * 7 
>SV result = result [wl] 
>SV count = count [wl] 
>DM &count& * 7 = £ result* 
>SV count = count +1 
>UN count = 13 

That gives you just a taste of what can be achieved with mail 
merge but let's start at the very beginning and try to understand 

exactly what mail merge is. 

Simple mail merging 

n its simplest form mail merge is just the process of taking a 
document (or file) full of data such as names and addresses and 
slotting them into a main template letter. For example, suppose you 
nave a document called "names' that contains the details of the 
members of your club in the following form (it might be an idea to 
•ype this in if you want to follow this chapter by trying the 
examples): 

John Smith 

27 Acacia Avenue 

Surbiton 

Surrey 

ABC 1HW 



141 



... .-.—si-.. : ■■; ■ " i» ~ " 

Erie Viking 
26 Pownell Road 
Muckle thwa i te 
Lancashire 
P03 9BU 

Norman Nobody 
1 The Avenue 
Dunmow 
Essex 
GB6 3TU 

Supposing you want to send each of them a letter to tell them that 

theTsubscription to your club is now due. You could write each a 
separate letter filling in the relevant name and address where 
appropriate but it would be far easier to get the word processor to 
do this for you. Consider what the letter would look like if you were 
writing to John Smith: 

15th August 1992 

Dear John , 

I write to remind you that your subscription is now due. 

just to keep our records up to date please confirm your 

name and address details are as shown below: 

John Smith 

27 Acacia Avenue 

Surbiton 
Surrey 
ABC 1HW 

Tours sincerely. 

Cliff Lawson 

It is clear that if we want to turn this letter into a template to be 

used for everyone we must replace all specific references to John 
Smith with some sort of "place holder" which will be filled in with 
different details for each different copy of the letter printed. The 
letter might then become: 

15th August 1992 
Dear &naroe&. 



142 



I write to remind you that your subscription is now due. 
Just to keep our records up to date please can confirm 
your name and address details are as shown below: 

4name& 
fiaddrl & 

Saddr2& 
&addr3& 
SpostcodeS 

Yours sincerely, 

Cliff Lawson 

The "&" is a special indicator to the word processor that the word 
contained within the "&" symbols is the name of a mail merge 
variable" which it must fill in when it prints the letter, 

5o that is our template letter, which can be stored in a document 
called "template' - type it in now if you like. Now we have to have 
some means of telling the word processor which document 

contains the list of names and addresses. We do this by using a DF 
stored command in the template letter. Add the line: 

>DF "names" 

to the top of the document. 

However, all the DF command does is tell the word processor where 
•he data is being kept. It has no way of knowing that the names 
and addresses are organised so that there is a single line with the 
name, 3 with the address, one with the postcode and one blank 
ne. We must also tell the word processor how to read the data 
;, om the data file and which mail merge variables the various items 
should be stored in. This is achieved using the RV command to read 
-ne information from the data file into mail merge variables which 
can then be inserted into the template letter. Add the following 
command after the DF command: 

>RV name, addrl , addr2, addr3, postcode, dummy 

A/hen this line is executed the word processor will read the first line 
'rom the data file and assign it to "name". The second line will go 
nto "addrl" and so on. The reason for having an extra variable 
called "dummy" is that each address is followed by a blank line to 



143 



separate it from the next and so each time that blank N«H 

read into "dummy" but not used. 
You could now try printing the document to a printer from the "Print 
document Screen You should get three copies of the letter printed. 
EochwHI have a different name ond address. While expenmenhng 
2 hm merge it can be a waste of paper to repeated^ print to 
a 7 printed While editing the template you can see > wha the re^ 
of a mail merge will be by printing the document to the sc reen 
Press S followed by Q. There is just one problem the output 
"acSs up the screen without you being able to read it. The solution 
s to use the >WT command in the document to make it wait tor a 
key to be pressed during printing. Put a >WT command rnto he 
document on the line after &postcode&. When you print this to the 
screen ft wS pause after printing the name and address and wa. 
to you to press a key. Don't forget to remove any >WT command 
before finally printing the document to a printer or you may not 
reale why printing seems to have stopped when the WT command 
is reached. 

More about reading data 

There are two commands which can be used to read data from a 
data ffle and assign it to mail merge variables, RV is the simpler form 
of command. It just reads data and assigns it to the named 
SarlaSeTS a btank line is read when it stops reading data and 
sets aliThe other "unread" variables to be blank. The problem w.th 
this is that if we had a shorter address such as: 



Tom Brown 
Rugby School 
Rugby 

RU3 8BS 



The blank line would cause problems if the RV command were 

used, 

When you print the letter you would get one in which Tom's address 

was used but his postcode would be missed ou because the 
reading of me file would have finished at the blank line between 
Rugby and RU3 8BY. The next letter printed would have a name of 
"RU3 88Y"! This clearly is not what we wanted at all. 



144 



If the RV command Is changed to RU, which will happily read an 

entry even if it is blank, then things are restored to normal. You will 
notice that although the names and addresses file contains a blank 
line between "Rugby" and "RU3 8BY", when printed this blank does 
not appear. This is because when a variable appears enclosed in 
'&" characters it does not print anything if the variable is blank. If 
you really wanted the blank line you could replace the "&" 
characters with "!" symbols. A variable name enclosed in "I" will print 
the contents of that variable even if it is blank. 

In the data file it is probably safest to put a single dollar sign on any 
lines which form part of the data but would otherwise be blank (the 
line between Rugby and the postcode in this case). The word 
processor knows that a line with a single dollar character on should 
be read in as a blank line. Just use completely blank lines between 
each record (collection of data). In this case you would only hove 
completely blank lines between the postcode of one entry and the 
next name. 

Inputting data when printing 

At the moment the template letter has the fixed date in It but we 
may want to use the same template several times and enter the 
date just before printing, This can be achieved by removing "15th 
August 1992" and replacing it with &date&. 

Try that now and print the template letter. You will get a message 
saying "Unknown variable 'date'*. We need the word processor to 
stop and ask for date to be typed in when the template is printed, 
This is achieved with the AV command which will Ask for a Variable 
to be typed in. Add a line at the top of the template document: 

>AV "Type in today's date: ", date 

.f you now print the document you will find that there is just one 
slight problem with this - you are asked to type in the date for every 
copy of the letter that is printed, You only want to be asked once 
at the very start so add the following line before the AV command 
ine: 

>IU date 

and add the line: 

>EI 



145 



otter the AV command line. Thts wilt mean that the AV command 

only used if the variable "date" is undefined. (This is what iU means 
- if Undefined). Once you have typed the date in it will be defined 
on subsequent prints of the letter. 

Other ways to set variables 

So far we have seen that it is possible to set the contents of a mail 
merge variable using either the RV/RU commands to read the value 
from a data file or the AV command to get the user to type in a 
value when the template is printed. It is also possible to set the 
contents of a variable directly using the SV command. 

Suppose we want to keep a count of how many copies of the letter 
have been printed and show this at the end of printing. This could 
be achieved as follows. First, on the line after the AV command that 
asks for the date add: 

>SV count = 1 

This sets a variable called 'count' to be 1 on the first time the 
document is printed. We know this will only happen on the first 
occasion because we have already seen that the line within the IU 
and Ei block is only used the once. This SV command shows another 
feature of the mail merge - variables can contain numbers as well 
as pieces of text and SV can be used to give a value to a variable 
(up to now we have only used name, addrl, and so on for storing 
pieces of text). 

After each copy has been printed we must increase the value held 
in count by one. This is done by including the following command 
at the end of the document: 

>SV count = count + 1 

This means that count should be set to the current value of count 
plus one. The final thing we need is to arrange for a message to be 
printed on the screen once the last letter has been printed. We 
know when the last letter has been printed because the data file 
will be exhausted. We can test for this condition using the IE 
command. So, on the line above SV count = count + 1 add the 
following lines: 



i.i< 



146 



>CS Number of copies printed was SoountS 

>EI 

The CS command will clear the screen and display the following 
message. The &count& part of the message will be filled in with the 
current value held in the count variable. When you print the 
template, at the very end, you should see the message "Number 
of copies printed was 4.00", We don't really want the two decimal 
places to be included in the display of count. This can be achieved 
by including the following on the line above the CS command: 

>SV count = count [wl] 

Splitting data out from a variable 

The [ wl ] is a special command to the word processor which means 
take only the first "word" contained in count. You might think it odd 
that we think of count as containing a word when really it holds a 
number. But the value 4.00 is thought of by the word processor as 
two words "4" and "00" separated by a full stop, The [wi] at the end 
of the line takes word 1 from count. 

It is possible to split out words from a line of text in a similar way. For 
example, if the variable "text* was set using: 

>SV text = "Now is the time for all good men" 

text[wi] would be "Now", 

text[w3] would be "the". 

text[w-i] would be "men" (w-1 means the last word) 

text[w4 :7] would be 'time for all good" (words 4 to 7) 

text[w7 : ] would be "good men" (words 7 to the end) 

You can also pick out a range of letters, for example textt2:8j 
would be "ow is t", 

You can use this ability to pick out parts of a piece of text within a 

conditional statement, For example, 

>IF name [w-1] = "Smith" 

would only be true if the last word in name (the surname) was Smith. 

In our example template we will currently get "Dear John Smith," 
printed. What we really want is just "Dear John,". You may already 



147 



,4 
have guessed how we might achieve this. After the >RV command 

add the line: 

>SV firstname = name[wl] 

and then modify the line which says Dear &name&, to read: 
Dear Sfirstnamefi, 

The complete template should read: 

>DF names 

>rv name, addrl, addr2, addr3, postcode, dummy 

>SV firstname = name[wl] 

>IU date 

>AV "Type in today's date : " date 

>SV count = 1 

>EI 

Dear fifirstnaraeS 

I write to remind you that you subscription is now due. 
Just tokeep our records up to date please can confirm your 
name andaddress details are as shown below: 

£name& . ., 

&addrlfi- 

£addr2 6 

Saddr3& 

Spostcodefi 

lours sincerely. 

Cliff Lawson 

>IE 

>SV count = count I wl] 

>CS Number of copies printed was ficountfi 

>EI 

>SV count = count + 1 

Using the IF command 

As has already been shown, you can arrange for selected pieces 
of text and selected stored commands to be used by including 
them in a conditional block that starts with one of the IF commands. 
You can use ID to test if a variable has been defined. IU will test if 



148 



a variable is undefined. The commands and text following IE will 
only be used if the data file is exhausted. However, most conditional 
tests are made using the general IF command followed by a 

condition. If the condition is met then the following lines are used. 
There are various comparisons that can be used in an IF command, 
they are as follows: 

Example 

>IF name = "John" 
>IF (total + 3) <> 5 
>IF count < 10 
>IFvat<= 17.5 
>IF age > 18 
>IF height > 5 
>IF "Smi" IN name 
>IF "081" NOTIN num 

The condition can include expressions similar to those that might be 
used in an SV command. For example: 

>IF price + delivery + vat > 200 



Comparison 


Meaning 


= 


equal to 


<> 


not equal to 


< 


less than 


<= 


less than or equal 


> 


Greater than 


>= 


greater than or equal 


IN 


is contained in 


NOTIN 


is not contained in 



Adding variables 

When the addition operator is used to add to variables together, 
the word processor checks to see if they are both numbers. If they 
are, then the addition is done numerically, otherwise one piece of 
text is just added onto the end of another, The following examples 
may illustrate this: 

>3V namel=" Cliff " 

>3V name2="Lawson" 

>SV numl="37" 

>SV num2="53" 

namel + name2 = "Cliff Lawson" 

namel + muni = "Cliff 37" 

numl + num2 = "90" 

num 2 + name2 = "53 Lawson" 



149 



Using names and addresses from 
the Address Book 

As you may already have a list of names and addresses entered 
into the address book section of your Notepad you may be 
wondering if you can use them in the data file for a mail merge 
operation The answer is yes but because they are .stored ir , a 
special way within the address book you must extract them into a 
new document before they can be used. The way to do this is to 
start a new document (call it "Addresses" maybe). Hit dJ so that 
the "Start typing new text here" message disappears, hen press 
(F^-^]|j[^ to sw itch to the address book function. Use the i_t=Jb=tJ 
keys to browse through your addresses until you find the firsl -one 
that you want to use for mail merging. Now press □ to transfer that 
into your document. Repeat this process for each entry you want 
to add. Now make sure that each has the same number of lines 
and that there is a blank line after each. You may want to delete 
some of the lines from each one. for example, remove the line that 
has the fax number on. A auick way to delete a whole line in the 
word processor is to press BO while the cursor is on the line. 

Mail merge without a data file 

The above description of mail merge has shown the way it is used 
with two files, one full of names and addresses and the other a 
template letter with sections to be filled in. There is a second 
general use for the mail merge feature and this is to construct just 
a template which, when printed, asks you to input various pieces 
of information and just fills them in immediately before printing, The 
obvious example of this is printing invoices. The following shows an 
example of this: 

AV "Enter today's date : ", date 

>AV "Knter current VAT rate % : " , vatrate 

>SV vatrate = vatrate / 100 

>AV "Type invoice number : '", invnum 

>SV gnet=0 gvat=0 gtotinc=0 

INVOICE 

Invoice number: iinvnumi Da te : &date6 

Description Retail Quant Disc Total Net VAT TOTAL 



150 



>AV "Description of goods? " descrip 12 

>AV "Retail price? " ret "Quantity?" quant 

>AV "Discount % ? n disc 

>IF di3C=" M 

>SV disc = 

>EI 

>SV totret=ret * quant oz"f«totret/100*disc 

>SV net=totret-off rat=net*vatrate 

>sv totinc=net+vat gnet=gnet+net gvat=gvat+vat 

>3V gtotinc=gtotinc+totinc 

> . .-R 

idescripS trett Squantfi tdisct ttotrett finett tvatS ttotinct 
>AV "Another entry? X/N " , yeno 
>UN yeno[l)"X" 

TOTALS sgnetfi Sgvatfi figtotincfi 

>ST 

The first few lines just input some necessary information to be 
printed at the top of the invoice. The VAT rate that is input is divided 
by 100 to convert it from a percentage to a fraction, 

The variables gnet, gvat and gfotinc will be used to hold the global 
totals of nett price, amount of vat and total price including VAT. 
They are set to zero at the start. 

The next few lines will actually be printed at the top of an invoice. 

Then everything between the RP and subsequent UN line are 
-epeated for each line of the document until you enter something 
other than Yes to the "Another entry?" question, 

?or each line the mail merge program asks you to input a 
description, price, quantity ana discount. A special check is made 
to see if @ was pressed when discount was asked for and, if so, 
the variable disc is set to zero. The next couple of lines do all the 
necessary calculations, adding VAT and reducing by any discount. 
T he totals for this line are then added into the global totals. 

'he next line defines a ruler with decimal tabs so that all the 

numbers line up and the following line actually prints the 
nformation into the invoice. 



151 



BBC BASIC ^' 

Your Notepad contains a powerful BASIC Interpreter that can Pe 
used to write your own programs. BASIC is the most popular 
programming language for Peginners to learn. In fact, the name 
BASIC is short for Beginners All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code 
because it is designed with beginners in mind. Symbolic instruction 
Code is just a technical way of saying "programming language", 
The version of BASIC built into the Notepad is compatible with BBC 
BASIC - the version that is taught in most schools and that is used 
on many other computers. 

When you are using the Notepad you can switch to using BASIC at 
any time by holding down the Ei™iH key and pressing lU. To leave 
BASIC when you have finished you type the command 'QUIT. 
Programs are not saved automatically so you MUST use the SAVE 
command before leaving BASIC to preserve any program you have 
been working on. 

You may like to set the 'Preserve context during power off' switch 
in the System Settings menu to 'Yes' so that if you switch off while 
using BASIC your program is still available when you next switch on. 

When you are using BASIC you must ensure that Caps Lock is 
switched on at all times because BASIC expects all its commands 
to be entered in upper case. If you type in a command and just 
see the message "Mistake" then it may well be that you have 
mistakenly used lower case. To help you, each time you switch to 
BASIC Caps Lock will be turned on (if it wasn't already). When you 
leave BASIC the setting of Caps Lock will be returned to its original 
state. 

When BASIC is started the screen will clear and you will see the 

message: 

BBC BASIC (NC100) Version 3.10 
{C> Copyright R.T.Russell 1992 
> 

The ">" symbol is the BASIC "prompt" and it shows that BASIC is ready 

for you to type in a command. There are two ways in which BASIC 
can be used. You can just type individual commands at the prompt 
and the result of them will be shown immediately. 



152 



Immediate commands -^: - ; - ^v>?* 

Try typing: 

PRINT 3+4 

When you press the result, 7, is displayed immediately. This is 
known as immediate mode. Now, try typing the following (you must 
end every command by typing ). 

PRINT "Hello World" 

(To type "Hell o Wor ld" you must switch Caps Lock off temporarily by 
pressing the I "" H key, but remember to switch it back on before 
typing further BASIC commands) 

PRINT is a command which does just what the name suggests and 
tells BASIC that when the line is executed it should print whatever 
follows the command on the line. If you just want some text printed 
you must put it in quotation marks. Anything that isn't in quotation 
marks BASIC assumes are further instructions. (As it did with 3 + 4, 
which it understood were instruction to tell it to add 3 and 4). 

Writing programs - a short tutorial 

Besides immediate mode the other way in which BASIC is used is 
for you to type in the lines of a program and these will be stored in 
the Notepad's memory. This is known as program mode. It is only 
when you give the special command, RUN, that the commands you 
have entered are actually acted upon. BASIC knows to store a 
command rather than act on it immediately if it starts with a 
number. Each line you type in must have a different number and 
the lines will be stored in number order. So, for example, if you were 
to type: 

10 PRINT "Stwrt" 
30 PRINT "End." 
20 PRINT 3+40 

The lines would actually be stored in the order 10, 20, 30. You can 
see this by typing the immediate mode command LIST. This will 

show you the program that is being held in the Notepad's memory. 

You might wonder why the lines have been numbered 10, 20, 30 
rather than just 1 , 2 and 3. The reason for this is that if you later 



153 



choose to add a line between 10 and 20 you could pick a number 

such as 15 that would be stored between them. If the lines were 
numbered 1, 2, 3 there would be no room to add a line between 
1 and 2. You cannot use 1.5 as a line number. You can only use 
whole numbers. Try typing in: 
15 PRINT "The result of 3 added to 4 is "; 

and then type LIST to see how that new line has been slotted in 
between 1 and 20. The semi-colon on the end of line 1 5 is a special 
command to BASIC that means that the next thing it prints should 
appear on the same line as the preceding text. 

So far. all that you have done is to enter the lines of a program. To 
actually see what happens when the program runs you must give 
the immediate command RUN. You will see the program print the 

following: 

Start 

The result of 3 added to 4 is 7 

End 

When you have finished writing a program you can store it 

permanently by using the SAVE command. You should type the 
word SAVE followed by the name of a document in which you want 
to store your BASIC program. The document name must be given 
in quotation marks. To save your first program you could type: 

SAVE "FIRST" 

To clear the memory so that you can start entering a completely 
new program you use the command NEW. Just type: 

NEK 

You must be careful with this command. If you type NEW without 

first saving anything you want to keep you will lose everything that 
you have entered. If you type the command LIST you will see that 
your first program has disappeared. BBC BASIC has a special 
command, OLD, which you can use immediately after a NEW 
command to recover what has just been erased. You must use OLD 
straight away, as soon as you enter a new program line the old 
program is lost forever. 

To check that the little program that you just saved can be 

recovered, type the command: 

154 



LOM> "FiftST* " ■' ■ ^"■" ■■■"*' 

This will load the program back into BASIC'S program memory. You 
can now type LIST and you will see that the program has been 
recovered. However, we no longer want to keep a copy of that 
orogram in BASIC'S memory so type the NEW command to clear 
BASIC'S memory then a new program can be entered. Now that 
BASIC is ready for a new program to be entered type in the 
following small program. Remember that BASIC keywords (such as 
PRINT, IF, THEN. GOTO) must be in upper case. If you forget you will 
see the error "Mistake in line x" when you RUN the program. 

10 NUM = 1 

20 PRINT NUM 

30 NUM = NUM +1 

40 IF NUM < 8 THEN GOTO 20 

Type RUN and you should see that the program prints out the 
numbers 1 to 7. 

Line 10 sets a variable called NUM to a starting value of 1. A 
variable is the name you give to an item that will store either a 
number or a piece of text. In this case the item is storing the number 
1 for us and we have chosen to call it NUM. 

Line 20 uses the PRINT command to show the contents of the 
variable NUM on the screen. Because NUM is not enclosed in 
exclamation marks, BASIC knows that it must look up the value 
stored in a variable called NUM instead of just printing the word 

NUM on the screen. 

Line 30 adds one onto the current value stored in NUM, In effect 
the line is saying 'Set the variable called NUM to be equal to the 

value currently store in NUM with one added to it". 

Line 40 checks to see if NUM is less than 8 (the left angle bracket is 
a special symbol used by BASIC to mean "less than"). If NUM still has 
a value less than 8 then BASIC goes onto to execute the command 
GOTO 20 which means, go back to line 20 and carry on running 
the program from there. If NUM is 8 or more then the part of the 
line after THEN is ignored and it goes on to execute the next line in 
sequence. Because there are no more lines after 40, the program 
stops running. 



155 



■mm 

SStaton can be changed as the result of a prev.ous operation 
Sort a ^ calculating device can be considered a computer. 
Anyone familiar with BASIC may have already realised that there* 

and then enter the following 3 lines: 

10 FOR nun = 1 TO 7 
20 PRINT num 
30 next num 

prompt ">' . 

Notice that this time we have put NUMin tower case ^um^ Th^ 

programs easier to read. 

tko word. FOR and NEXT are 2 commands in BASIC that are always 

used Ce her The for command starts a variable at a certain 

wsmm* 



156 



-OR command so that any particular NEXT command knows which 
: OR command it should jump back to. 

So far our little programs have had fixed numbers built into the 
orogram (the first program could only show the result of 3 + 4, the 
second and third would just print the numbers 1 to 7 on the screen). 
Normally you will want to make your programs more versatile so 
•hat each time they are run they ask for some information and then 
-nodify the operation of the program according to the information 
entered. You do this with the INPUT command. 

"Ype LIST to see the current three line program and then type: 

5 INPUT "Start" /start 

7 INPUT "Finish" , -finish 

10 FOR num = start TO finish 

Now type LIST and you will see that not only have two new lines 
oeen added to the start of the program but line 10 has been 
eplaced by a new version. If you type in a new line with the same 
-lumber as an existing line then that existing line will be replaced 
:;y the new version. 

"he sequence of numbers in our program is now 5, 7, 10, 20, 30. This 
s bit untidy. Type the command RENUMBER and then LIST. You will 
;ee that the program has been renumbered with the line numbers 
going up in steps of 10, 

.Vhen you RUN the modified program it will stop and ask for a Start 
alue, Type the number 10 and press C^L). When it asks for "Finish" 
vpe 14. It will then print the numbers 10 to 14. If you run it again 
Dnd enter different start and finish values it will print a different set 
}f numbers each time. 

'he following is another example of a program that asks for you to 
nput numbers when it is run and then processes the numbers to 
;how a result. 

10 INPUT "VAT rat* as a percentage (0..100) "; vatrate 

2 INPUT "Amount "; amount 

30 total = amount + (amount * vatrate / 100) 

40 PRINT amount " With VAT added is " total 

.Vhen you RUN this program it will ask you to input the VAT Rate and 
•nen an amount. It will print out what that amount is when it has 
^ad VAT added to it at the given rate. Like before, lines 10 and 20 

157 



use the INPUT command to get the user of ^.P"**™ *°*£* 

some values. The wording of the question is enclosed ,n quotation 
marks and'his is followed by a semicolon (;) ^bs^^me^ 
the variable in which the value should be stored. If you don t use 
a semicolon then no question mark is printed. 
Line 30 creates a new variable called total which is the result of 
aSdina Te amount multiplied by the VAT rate to the original 
Amount The part of the calculation in parentheses is calculated 
S°beforelhe final addition is performed . The astansk ( is he 
symbol BASIC understands to mean "multiply and the slash (/) .s the 
symbol that means "divide by". 

Line 40 prints the original amount stored in the variable amount 
Swed P by the meiage (in quotation marks) followed by the 
value of the variable total. 

This program has one or two shortcomings. Firstly it was ; not jeajy 
necessary to create the intermediate variable called total to hold 
^ TeXf the calculation. Instead, line 30 could be deleted and 
line 40 changed to read 

40 HUNT amount "With VAT actte* is - amount + <*->-* * vatrate / 100) 

To delete line 30 just type the number 30 on its own and press 0. 
This i? the standa d way to remove a single line from a program. If 
you run the program again it will work exactly as before even 
though it has been simplified. 

The next problem that we could overcome is the fact that each 
time the program is RUN it just allows one set of numbers to be 
entered a P n3 9 then stops. What we could d o^thBhavjgtt)e 
program loop back to the start each time it gets to the end. Th.s is 
easy to do. Just add line 50: 



50 GOTO 10 



When you type RUN it will ask you for the VAT rate and then the 
amount and men display the result. It will then go back round and 
S ta? he VAT rate again. This isn't really what we wanted. It should 
Sv be necessary to enter the VAT rate once each time the 
program Is rCn What' s more, there doesn't appear to be any wa V 
to stop the program running. 

To stop the program press the B key. If you press the © key wher 
L program is inning it will stop running and the BASIC prompt wil 



158 



appear after a message which says "Escape at line x". This tetteyou 
which line BASIC was executing when you stopped it. 

The eqsy answer to not being asked to input the VAT rate every time 
is to make the destination of the final jump to be line 20. So type 
the command: 

EDIT 50 

The current contents of line 50 will be displayed. Use the @@ 
arrow keys to move the cursor to the end of the line and then 

delete 10 and replace it with 20. When you have finished editing 
the line press f^fl 

If you ever EDIT a line and then realise that you would like to keep 
the old version just press *r^ and your changes will be ignored. You 
will find when editing lines that many of the quick methods you may 
have learnt about in the word processor can be used to move 
about the lin e. Fo r example, the left and right arrow keys OfWl 
pressed with E I will move a word at a time and when pressed 
with Ez3 will jump to the start or end of the line. 

In our program there is still ajxoblem that the only way to stop the 
program is by pressing the Izn key. As the program keeps waiting 
to ask for an amount to be input we could arrange for the program 
to stop running completely if the value were input. Add the 
following line: 

25 IF amount = THEN STOP 

Including this line means that if the value is input when the 
program is asking for "amount" the program will STOP. STOP is a 
command to BASIC that does exactly what the name suggests and 
stops a program running returning the BASIC prompt. 

The above has given you an idea of the first steps in learning BASIC 
out unfortunately there isn't room in this manual for a complete 
•utorial. What we suggest is that you get one of the many hundreds 
3f books available on programming in BASIC and you will find that 
most of what they say applies equally well to the BBC BASIC in your 
Notepad, if possible, get a book that is specifically written with BBC 
BASIC in mind. 



W 



■.s 



Example BASIC programs 

The following are a few simple programs that give a small taste of 
what is possible in BASIC on the Notepad. Don't worry too much tf 
you don't understand all the commands used. You will probably 
find them fun to use even if you do not understand exactly how 
thev work. One thing to watch is that you must type them exactly 
as shown including all spaces and punctuation symbols. Don t 
forget to press at the end of each line that you type. 

PROGRAM 1 : Reaction time tester 

This program uses the 1 / 1 00th second clock that BASIC gives access 

to in order to time your reactions: 

10 PRINT "Get ready..." 

20 D = RND(300)+200 

30 TIME = 

40 REPEAT 

50 UNTIL TIME > D 

60 PRINT "Press a key..." 

70 T = TIME 

80 X = GET 

90 T = TIME - T 

100 PRINT "You tooX" T/1D0 " seconds." 

Line 20 picks a number at random between and 300, adds 200 to 
it to make it between 200 and 500 and then sets the clock to zero 
in line 30. 

Lines 40 and 50 then delay for that number of 1 /l OOths of a second. 
(between 2 and 5 seconds) 

Line 60 prints the message you must react to - The current time is 

remembered in variable T and then after the GET statement in , hne 
80 has got a key press a calculation is made to see how much time 
has elapsed. 

This value is printed in line 100 (divided by 100 because it is a 
measurement in l/100ths not whole seconds so must be converted. 



160 



PROGRAM 2 : A musical organ program 



10 k$ = "AWSEDFTGYHUJK0LP;']#"-K3H$<13) : Cnote=96 

20 a$ = GET$ 

30 IF a$ = '■ " THEN STOP 

40 IF a$>="l" AND a$<="4"' THEN Cnote=4B* {A3G(a$) -ASC("0" ) ) : GOTO 20 

45 IF a$>="a" AND a$<="z" THEN a$=CHR$(A£C(a$)-32) 

50 note = INSTR(k$, a$> 

60 IF note = THEN SOTO 20 

70 sound 1, 0, note*4 + Qiote, 4 

80 GOTO 20 

Line 10 defines a string called k$ which holds all the keys that the 
orogram recognises. The B key is a special case as it returns the 
value 13 that cannot be typed into a string - hence the "+ CHR$(13)" 
at the end of the string. The variable Cnote stores the pitch value 
for the musical note C. By varying this between 48, 96, 144 and 192 
it is possible to play 4 octaves. 

Line 20 is the one which reads the keys pressed on the keyboard 
and puts them into a$. 

Jne 30 gives us a neat way to stop the program (without having to 
nit Stop). It tests to see if the character typed was the space bar 

and if so the program stops. 

Line 40 checks to see if the character type was between "T and 
'4". If it was it sets Cnote equal to 48 * the number 1 , 2 3 or 4. 

Line 45 converts any lower case letters that have been typed into 
jpper case. This relies on the fact that the character numbers of all 
+ he upper case letters are exactly 32 less than the lower case 
etters. ASC converts a string to its character number and CHR$ 
converts a character number back to a string. 

Assuming the key pressed wasn't 1 , 2, 3 4 or space, Line 50 then 
ooks up the character that has been typed in k$ and sets the 
variable called note to be equal to the position number (so A=l, 
N=2, S=3, E=4 and so on up to R=21). 

Jne 60 then checks to see if note is zero (which means the key 
wasn't found in k$), If this is the case a jump is made back to line 
20 to read another key. 

The program will get to line 70 If the variable note contains a valid 
note number. This is multiplied by 4 because sounds go up in 



161 



semitones not 1/4 semitones. Finally it is added onto Cnotetomalw 
the rj U key, (note= 1 ) note C. The duration of note is set to 4/20ths 
of a second (l/5th) so each key press will just make a short beep. 

The last line of the program just directs control back round to line 
20 so it will always wait for keys to be pressed (until the space bar 
is used to stop the program). 

Weil that's the program but what do you do with it? Wei!. RUN it 

and press some keys on the middle line of the keyboard. You should 
hear musical notes. The keys have been picked to try and imitate 
the black and white notes on a piano keyboard: 

OF J OQQ FJQ D0 ;■■■■■- 

keys tH-DO&DEJQDOOa 

C# Eb F# Ab Bb C# Eb F# 

notes CDEFGABCDEFG 

So try tapping in the following tunes (spacing gives an idea of 
rhythm): 

Patriotic: 

GG H T GH JJ K J HG HG T G 

GHJK LLL L KJ KKK K JH 

JKJHG J K L ; K J H Ge 
Seafaring: ■ 

KJK AA GFDG KK ;IK L SS LKJ L ## 
Scottish and lyrical: 

WTTYUU YTTEWW 

WTTYUOPO 

OPPOU UOJUYTE 

WW TUOPOUYT 

While you are using the program press the (T]OU or (LD keys 
next to the Er6 key and see what happens. When you have finished 
press the space bar to stop the program running. 



162 



PROGRAM 3 : Scientific graph plotting 

This program asks for a mathematical function to be typed in then 
plots a curve of it on the screen. 

10 pi4 = PI * 4 : st = pi4 / 480 : xscale " 480 / pi4 
20 INPUT "Function of x to plot (eg SIN(x)) : " funo$ 

30 INPUT "Y scaling value (try 31 to start) : " yscale 

40 CLG 

50 PRINT TAB (0,0) ;func$ 

60 FOR X=0 TO pi 4 STEP St 

70 y = INT(EVAL(func$)*yscale + 31) 

80 PLOT 69, x * xscale, y 

90 NEXT x 

Line 10 defines some constants to be used in the program (you can 

have several statements on one line separated by colons ":"), The 
reason for making the variable pi4 is that we use the value of PI 
(3. 14159) multiplied by 4 on several occasions so it is quicker to just 
calculate it the once. The variable st is used as the STEP value in a 
FOR.. NEXT loop and xscale is used to make sure that the plotted 
graph will exactly fill the full width of the screen. 

In line 20 The user is asked to input a function to plot. BBC BASIC is 
very powerful in that one can type in a function of x and later have 
it evaluated even though it is effectively just a string of characters. 

Line 30 lets the user set a y scaling value. The reason for this is that 
some graphs have a much larger amplitude (top to bottom height) 
than others. Lower values input for y scaling will reduce the height 
of the graph until it will fit on the screen. 

Line 40 clears the graphics screen ready to plot the graph and line 
50 just prints the function that has been input as a title. The TAB(0,0) 
makes sure that the text appears in the first column of the first line 

on screen 

Line 60 sets up a FOR..NEXT loop that will step x from to PIM (this 
is a measure of angle in radians and is the equivalent of 720 
degrees or twice round a circle). So that 480 dots are printed across 
the screen the previously calculated STEP value is used to increase 
x in a very small increment each time. 

Line 70 is the business end of the program that takes the function 
of x that has been input and evaluates it with EVAL, The resultant y 
value is multiplied up by the y scaling factor so that numbers 

between and 1 (such as you get from SIN(x)) will make a 



163 



noticeable displacement on the display (+/- 32 pixels trOmJW 

cen?re line) The resulting value is added to 31 to position it about 
SSmwSe of the screen and only the integer part is taken (using 
hi ?NT function) because co-ordinates with decimal fract.ons 
would not make much sense to the PLOT command. 
Each dot of the curve to be plotted is individually set by line 80 This 
uses the ubiquitous PLOT command which has myriad uses. It just 
so happens that "69" is the one that means plot a point at an 
absolute (x y) position. A list of ail the possible PLOT commands .s 
given later in the manual. 

Line 90 just completes the FOR..NEXT loop so that all 480 dots across 
the screen are used, 

When you RUN this program start off with an easy f^tioa Enter 
™IN(x)" for the function (the word SiN must be in upper case but x 
must be in lower case). When asked for the scal.ng value enter 31 . 

Having tried that, run the program again but this time enter the 
function as: 

SQR(ABS(SIN(X))) 

again use a scale value of 31. The reason for the ABS function in 

me above is to prevent the SQR (square root) functon being gwen 

a negative value which will just cause the program to stop with an 

error, 

For a final run of the program try the very interesting (and complex) 

function: 

SIM(X)*COSOO - SIN<X>*SQR.(X> 

For the scaling value enter 8. This curve starts < rfl rwffl- ic ismc* 
amplitude but gets greater and greater as the plot continues. 

Try making up your own functions using combination soHhe various 
mathematical functions in BASIC which are toted .n the brief 
summary of all BASIC commands that follows later. 



164 



PROGRAM 4 : An analogue clock ' ^^ " l ^- 

10 DIM sn%(60), cs%<60), snoff%(60) , csoff%(60) 

20 CLG 

30 FOR theta=0 TO 60 

40 sn% (theta) = INT (31 * 8IN (RAD (that* * 6>>) 

50 snoff% (theta) = sn% (theta) + 240 

60 cs%(theta) = INT (31 * COS(RAD(theta * 6>>) 

70 csoff% (theta) = cs% (theta) + 31 

80 PLOT 69, sno£f% (theta) , cso££% (theta) 

90 IP (theta mod 5)=0 then pROC_Draw_Hour_Blab (theta) 

100 NEXT theta 

110 hour$=MID$(TIME$, 17, 2) 

120 min$=MID$(TIME$, 20, 2) 

130 sec$=MID$(TIME$, 23, 2) 

140 PRINT TAB(50, 4) ;MID$ (TIMES . 17, 6) 

150 hour=VAL(hour$) : min=VAL(«in$) : see«*VAL(*ec$> 

153 IF houc>12 THEN hour=hour-12 

155 hour=hour*5 + (mln/12> 

160 PROC_Draw_Hand(haur, 0.4) 

170 PROC_Draw_Hand(rain, 0.6) 

180 PROC_Draw_Hand(sec, 0.9) 

190 IF INKEY(1>=-1 THEN GOTO 110 

200 STOP 

300 : 

400 DEF PR0C_Draw_Hand(t±»B, length) 

410 newtlme = tire 

420 IF timeOO THEN oldti«e-(ti»«-l) ELSE oldtime=(time+59) 

430 MOVE 240,31 

440 PLOT 7,sn%(oldtime) * length +• 240, cs% (oldtlme) * length + 31 

450 MOVE 240,31 

460 DRAW sn% (newtirae) * length ♦ 240, cs% (newtime) * length + 31 

470 ENDPBOC 

480 : 

500 DEF PROC_Draw_Ho-ur_Blob (angle) 

510 MOVE snoff% (angle) , csoff* (angle) 

520 DRAW sn% (angle) * 1.1 + 240, e*% (angle) * 1.1 + 31 

530 ENDPROC 

t's a pretty mammoth program but we hope you think It Is worth 

the effort of typing it in! 

The program draws a circular clock face and shows the current 
time that the Notepad's clock is set to as a set of pointers on the 
clock face. The time is shown as text digits alongside. 

There are several ways to draw a circle on a computer. One 
method is to use the formula for a circle r 2 =x 2 + y and rearrange 
mis to give y=SQR(r 2 - x 2 ). r - the radius is a fixed quantity (31 in our 
case) so you just vary x between and r and calculate the 
corresponding y values and plot the points. However, this only 



165 



produces one quadrant to a circle, It is far easier to use the 
formulae that: 

x = r sin(theta) 

and 

y = r cos(theta) 

Then write a program that varies theta between and 360 degrees 
and calculate the (x,y) points on a circle. This is roughly what the 
program does. However, it is recognised that a clock face only has 
60 distinct points so there is no point in calculating 360 points. So 
the program just counts theta up from to 60 and then uses the 
values of COS and SIN of theta multiplied by 6. As there is a lot of 
sine and cosine calculations to be done, the program does all the 
calculations at the very start and stores the fixed results in two 
arrays of variables. In addition to these a second set of arrays hold 
the same results but shifted across the screen by 240 points and up 
by 31 . (To the centre of the screen). 

The arrays are chosen to be integer arrays (that's what the "%' after 
each name means) this makes them quicker to access and more 
compact. 

While the initial calculations are being made and the 60 points on 
the clock face are being drawn, a check is made to see if theta is 
divisible by 5 (using the MOD function). When it is a named 
procedure (Draw_Hour_Blob) is called to make a bigger mark to 
distinguish the twelve hour points on the clock face. 

Once the face has been drawn the main loop of the program is 
entered. Every second this reads the setting of the system date and 
time (in TIMES) and breaks out the hour, minutes and seconds 
settings into separate strings. The strings are then converted to 
numbers using the VAL function. For each of the three quantities a 
call is made to the Draw_Hand named procedure. When this is 
called two parameters are supplied. One is the setting of hours, 
minutes or seconds. And the other value passed is the iength of the 
pointer (*1 .0 would be as long as the radius of the clock face, *0.4 
is 2/5th the length of the radius and is used for the hour hand), Once 
the strings have been converted to numbers the hour value is 
multiplied by 5 to make it in the range 0..55. One twelfth of the 
minutes setting is added so that the hour hand will take one of five 
distinct positions between one hour and the next. 

166 



After the calls to draw fhe ; hands a check Is made to see if a key 

is pressed, if one is then the program stops, otherwise it jumps back 
to read the new time and re-draw the pointers. That forms the main 
loop of the program. Line 300 with a single colon is just a neat way 
of spacing the lines of the main program from the procedure 
definitions that follow. 

Finally there are the two procedures. The one to draw hands uses 
two time settings, the current hour, minute or second and the 
previous hour minute or second. It draws a blank line (PLOT 7) at 
the old location and then draws in the new pointer. When 
calculating the previous minute a special case of the hour/min/sec 
oeing is made. In this case the previous hour/min/sec would be 
negative so 59 is added on. 

The final procedure is the one that draws the extended legends on 
me "hours". It does this by drawing lines out from the circle edge to 
ooints that are 1 ,1 "the radius further out. 

A/e hope you enjoy these simple programs and may be inspired to 
delve deeper into the world of BASIC programming, The range of 
-hings you could attempt is endless. How about writing a drawing 
oackage? Or a cardfile program? Or a spreadsheet? Or a game? 
Or a terminal program to use the serial port (hint: treat it like a file 
called "COM:") ? 

Differences between BBC BASIC 

on the Notepad and other computers 

Not every feature of BBC BASIC is supported by the version in the 
Notepad. Obviously the sound facilities are very limited and the 
screen is only 480 pixels wide by 64 lines deep, also, it can only show 
■wo "colours". This does mean that some of the standard BBC BASIC 
commands are limited on the Notepad. The following pages 
describe the way in which some of the BASIC commands differ from 
-nose that may be described in general books about BBC BASIC. 

Allowing this is a list of all the keywords recognised in BBC BASIC, 
-nis is not a complete reference but may be useful to those who 
already know a version of BASIC. 

'hose language elements which are machine specific, particularly 
-ardware-dependent features, are documented in the following 
jages. In most cases their operation has been made as 



167 



compatible as possible with the original Acbrft versions, wrflNm* 

constraints of the NCI 00 design and its operating system: 

ADVAL 

The Notepad has no analogue input port or equivalent, Use of the 
ADVAL function will result in the error message "Sorry* (error code 
255), 

CLG 

This statement clears the current graphics window (by default the 
entire display) to the unlit ('white') state. The graphics cursor is not 
moved. 

CIS 

This statement clears the current text window (by default the entire 

display) to 'space' characters and moves the text cursor to the top 
left. 

COLOUR 

The Notepad's (LCD) screen cannot display colours. Use of the 

COLOUR statement will result in the error message "Sorry" (error 
code 255). Limited control over text attributes can be obtained 
with VDU which is explained below 

DRAW x,y 

Draws a straight line (in 'lit' pixels) between the current position of 
the graphics cursor and the specified co-ordinates, then moves the 
graphics cursor to the specified position. The range of co-ordinates 
corresponding to positions on the screen is to 479 in the x- 
airection and to 63 in the y-direction, This statement is identical 
to PLOT 5, x. y, 

EDIT number 

A single-line editor is provided, which is entered using the 
command EDIT number. The contents of two or more lines may be 
concatenated using the syntax EDIT 1,2 but the intermediate line 
numbers must be edited out, and the original lines deleted, 
manually. A line may be duplicated by editing only the line 
number, 



168 



ENVELOPE l! - .-HMWO 

This feature is not supported. Use of the ENVELOPE statement will 
result in the error message "Sorry" (error code 255). 

EOF# channel 

This function returns TRUE if the file pointer is at the end-of-file and 
FALSE otherwise, In the special case of the serial port ("COM:") TRUE 
indicates that there are no input characters waiting while FALSE 
indicates that one or more characters are waiting at the input. 

EXTfchanne/ 

This function returns the size, in bytes, of an opened file. In the 
special case of the serial and parallel ports ("COM:" and "LPT:") a 
non-zero returned value indicates that the output port is busy and 
f written to may result in a "Device fault". A returned value of zero 
'ndicates that the output port is ready to receive more characters, 

GCOL 

The Notepad's (LCD) screen cannot display colours. Use of the 
GCOL statement will result in the error message "Sorry" (error code 
255). 

INKEY(n), INKEY$(n) 

Waits up to the specified maximum time, in units of centiseconds 
(1/IOOths of a second), for a keypress, if no key is pressed within 
the time limit, INKEY returns -1 and 1NKEYS returns a null string, Use 
of INKEY with a negative argument to test the state of each key 

ndependently is not supported. 

MODE 

'"his feature is not supported. Use of the MODE statement will result 
n the error message "Sorry" (error code 255). 

MOVE x,y 

Moves the graphics cursor to the specified co-ordinates, but does 
not affect what is displayed. The range of co-ordinates 
corresponding to positions on the screen is (left) to 479 (right) in 
♦he x-direction and (bottom) to 63 (top) in the y-direction. This 

statement is identical to PLOT 4. 



169 



OPENIN(/7fenGfme$> *w?*V 

This function opens a file for input (read only), if the filename 
supplied is "COM;" then a channel is opened to the serial port. 

OPENOUT(fftenameS) 

This function creates a new file and opens it for output (write only). 

if the filename supplied is "COM:" then a channel is opened to the 
serial port, if the filename supplied is "LPT:" then a channel is 
opened to the parallel port. 

OPENUP(f7/ename$) 

This function opens a file for Input or output. If the filename 
supplied is "COM:" then a channel is opened to the serial port. 

PLOT n, x, y 

A multi-purpose plotting statement, whose effect is controlled by 

the first parameter. The range of co-ordinates corresponding to 
positions on the screen is to 479 in the x-direction and to 63 in 
the y-direction. In the following "relative" means that (x, y) are 
added onto the current graphics cursor position to determine the 
destination. When "absolute" co-ordinates are used they are always 
specified with relation to the origin of the graphics screen at (0, 0). 

n Action 

Moves the graphics cursor relative to the last point. 

1 Draws a line, in 'black', relative to the last point. 

2 Draws a line, in 'inverse', relative to the last point. 

3 Draws a line, in 'white', relative to the last point, 

4 Moves the graphics cursor to the absolute position x,y. 

5 Draws a line, in 'black', to the absolute position x,y. 

6 Draws a line, in 'inverse', to the absolute position x,y 

7 Draws a line, in 'white, to the absolute position x,y. 

8-15 As 0-7, but plots the last point on the line twice (i.e. in th« 

'inverting' modes omits the last point), 

16-31 As 0-15, but draws the line dotted. 

32-63 As 0-31 , but plots the first point on the line twice 

(i.e. in the 'inverting' modes omits the first point). 



170 



64-71 As O*.*toot plots a single point at x,y. 

72-79 Draws a horizontal line left and right from the point x.y 

until the first 'lit' pixel is encountered, or the edge of 
the window. This can be used to fill shapes. 

80-87 . Plots and fills a triangle defined by the two previously 

visited points and the point x.y. 

88-95 Draws a horizontal line to the right of the point x,y until 

the first 'unlit' pixel is encountered, or the edge of the 

window. This can be used to "undraw" things. 

96-103 Plots and fills a rectangle whose opposite corners are 
defined by the last visited point and the point x,y. 

POINT(x, y) 

This function returns the state of the pixel at the specified location, 
as (unlit) or 1 (lit). If the specified point is outside the graphics 
window (taking into account the position of the graphics origin) the 
value -1 is returned, 

POS 

This function returns the horizontal position (column) of the text 
cursor with respect to the left-hand edge of the current text 
window, in the range to 79. 

SOUND channel, loudness, pitch, duration 

A simple, two-voice, sound generator is incorporated. There is no 
control over sound amplitude. The four parameters behave as 
follows; 

channel This selects the sound channel used, 1 or 2. 

loudness This is ignored. 

pitch This selects the pttch in units of quarter-semitones. 

The pitch can be varied only in semitone increments, 
therefore the least significant 2 bits are ignored; 
Middle C is 100. If the pitch value is set to then the 

sound is switched off. 



r7i 



duration Values from to 254 select the duration of the sound, 

in units of approximately 1/20 second, The value -1 
or 255 causes an indefinite sound, which can be 
stopped only by issuing another SOUND statement or 
by pressing the Q key. 

TAB(x, y) 

Used within a PRINT or INPUT statement, positions the text cursor in 

column x, row y with respect to the current text window. 

TIME 

This pseudo-variable reads and sets an elapsed-time clock in units 

of centiseconds (one-hundredths of a second), 

TIMES 

This pseudo-variable reads and sets the real-time clock. The jtacmar 

of the returned string is "Day.dd Mon yyyy.hh:mm:ss where Days 
the day of week, dd the day of month, Mon the month, yyyy the 
year, hh the hour (00-23), mm the minute and ss the second The 
time date or both time and date may be set by including the 
appropriate fields. When setting the clock the day of week is 
ignored and may be omitted. 

VDU List 

Passes the elements of the list to the VDU emulator (see full 

description below). Items terminated by a semicolon are sent as 

16-bit values, LSB first. 

VPOS 

This function returns the vertical position (row) of the text cursor with 
respect to the top of the current text window, in the range to 7. 



172 



Operating System Commands 

The following Operating System commands are implemented. They 
may be accessed directly (e.g. *BYE) or via the OSCLI statement 
rOSCLI "BYE"). 

'BYE 
'QUIT 

Exits from BASIC and returns control to the Operating System. 

•CAT 
•DIR 

Jsts a catalogue of all the stored files. 

'DELETE filename 
'ERASE filename 

Deletes the specified file. 
•ESC (ON I OFF) 

Enables or disables the abort action of the Q key which is known 
in BASIC as the ESCape key; after "ESC OFF the B key simply 
'eturns the ASCII code ESC (27). *ESC ON, or *ESC. restores the 
normal action of the @ key. 

•EXEC filename 

Accepts console input from the specified file instead of from the 
keyboard (note that GET and INKEY always read from the 

keyboard). 

•KEY n {string) 

Redefines a key to return the specified string. The key number n is 
from to 127, where 41 to 66 correspond to p-Hr ] to [°""'°F 1 
respectively. The string may contain the "escape" symbol I in order 
to insert non-printing characters. For example, I M indicates El, !? 
indicates DEL, I I indicates the character I itself and I ! causes bit 
7 of the following character to be set. If the string is enclosed in 
quotes (which is optional) I ' allows the character " to be included. 



173 



*L0 AD filename aaaa .-■,,,- .,,«-. -.-.^ 

Loads the specified file into memory at hexadecimal address aaaa. 
The load address must be specified, and point to a valid memory 
location. 

♦PRINTER n 

Selects the printer as parallel (n=0) or serial (n=l). 

•RENAME oidfile newflte 
Renames the file oidfile as newfile. 

"SAVE filename aaaa bbbb 

•SAVE filename aaaa +1111 

Saves a specified range of memory to a file. The address range is 

specified either as start address aaaa and end address +1 bbbb or 

as start address aaaa and length ////. 

*SPOOL [filename) 

Copy all subsequent console output to the specified file, If the 

filename is omitted, any current spool file is closed and spooling is 

terminated. 

•| comment 

This is a comment line. Anything following the i is ignored, 

The VDU emulator 

All console output is passed to a software emulator of the BBC 
Micro's VDU drivers. VDU codes perform a function similar to those 
of the BBC Micro, consistent with the hardware and Operating 
System differences: 

VDU Ignored 

VDU 1 ,n The following byte is sent to the printer, if enabled 

(with VDU 2J. If the printer is not enabled, the byte is 
ditched. Any 8-bit value (0- 255) can be sent. This 
works even when the VDU is disabled with VDU 21. 

VDU 2 Enables the printer. Subsequent characters are sent 

both to the screen and to the printer. The only 
control characters sent to the printer are BEL (7), BS 



174 



ii.>. (8), HT (9);iF00). VT (1 1), FF (12) and CR (13): 'ByfeV 

•-?■■ which are parameters for VDU commands are not 

sent to the printer, e.g. VDU 27,13 does not send a 

carriage return to the printer. 

VDU 3 Disables the printer. Cancels the effect of VDU 2. 

VDU 4 Causes the text cursor to be displayed. 

VDU 5 Causes the text cursor to be hidden. 

VDU 6 Enables the screen display. Cancels the effect of 

VDU 21. 

VDU 7 Causes a "beep". 

VDU 8 Moves the text cursor left one character. If it was at 

the left edge of the window, it is wrapped to the 
end of the previous row (right-hand edge of 
window). If it was also on the top row of the text 

window, it is moved to the bottom row. 

VDU 9 Moves the text cursor right one character. If rt was 

at the right hand edge of the window, it is wrapped 
to the beginning of the next row (left-hand edge of 
window). If it was also on the bottom row of the text 
window, it is moved to the top row. 

VDU 10 Moves the text cursor down one row. If it was on the 

bottom row of the text window, the window scrolls 
up. 

VDU 1 1 Moves the text cursor up one row. If it was on the 

top row of the text window, it is moved to the bottom 

row. 

VDU 12 This is identical to CLS in BASIC. It clears the text 

window to space characters and moves the text 
cursor to the 'home' position (top-left corner of the 
text winOow). 

VDU 13 Moves the text cursor to the left-hand edge of the 

window, but does not move it vertically. 

VDU 14 Enables inverse text. 

VDU 15 Disables inverse text. Cancels the effect of VDU 14. 



175 



VDU 16 ' This is identical to CLG In BASIC. It clears the graphics 
window to unlit ('white') pixels. The graphics cursor 
is not moved. 

VDU 17 Enables bold text. 

if 

VDU 18 Disables bold text. Cancels the effect of VDU 17. 

VDU 1 9 Enables underlined text, 

VDU 20 Disables underlined text. Cancels the effect of VDU 

-- 19. 

VDU 21 Disables VDU output. Ail subsequent VDU commands 

except 1 to 6 are ignored. If the printer is enabled, 
VDUs 7,8,9,10,11,12 and 13 will still be sent to the 

printer. 

VDU 22 Ignored 

VDU 23 Ignored 

VDU 24,leftx;bottomy;rightx;topy; 

Sets the graphics window. Horizontal (x) 
co-ordinates are in the range (left) to 479 and 
vertical (y) co-ordinates in the range (bottom) to 
63. 

VDU 25, n,x;y; 

This is identical to PLOT n, x, y in BASIC. See PLOT for 
more details. 

VDU 26 Resets the text and graphics windows to their default 

positions (filling the whole screen), homes the text 
cursor, moves the graphics cursor to 0,0 and resets 
the graphics origin to 0,0. 

VDU 27 ,n Sends the next byte to the screen without 
interpreting it as a control code. Allows graphics 
characters corresponding to VDU 0-31 and VDU 127 
to be displayed. Acts in a similar way to VDU 1 for 
the printer, 



176 



VDOMfeftxfbottomy, rtgfitx, tdpy 'W, v. ■ t- ■-" 

Sets the text window. Horizontal (x) co-ordinates are 

in the range (left) to 79 and vertical (y) 
co-ordinates in the range (top) to 7. 

VDU 29, x; y; Moves the graphics origin to the specified 

co-ordinates. Subsequent graphics co-ordinates are 
with respect to this position. 

VDU 30 Homes the text cursor, to the top-left corner of the 

text window. 

VDU 3 1 , x, y identical to PRINT TAB(x. y); in BASIC. Positions the text 

cursor according to the next two bytes. The 

-. f ■.■■. co-ordinates are with respect to the edges of the 

current text window. 

VDU 127 Backspaces the cursor by one position and deletes 

the character there. 



\rtf <■■' 



Operating System error messages 

These (trappable) errors are related to operating system functions: 

Access denied (189): An inappropriate operation was 

attempted on a device (e.g. 
reading from the parallel port). 



Bad command (254): 
Bad key (251): 
Bad string (253): 
Channei (222): 
Close error (200): 
Device fault (202): 



A star command was invalid or 

incorrectly formed. 

An attempt to define a function 
key string failed, 

A string was too long, or had 
unmatched quotes. 

The channel number passed to a 
filing function was invalid 

An error occurred when trying to 
close a file. 

A time-out occurred when 
reading or writing a device, 



177 



File creation error (190): 



File exists (196): 



File not found (214): 



File write error (198): 



Too many open files (192); 



An OPENOUT, SAVE, *SA/E **' 
•SPOOL failed, because the 
specified file could not be 
created (e.g. too many files). 

A 'RENAME command specified 
the new name as the name of an 

existing file. 

A LOAD, 'LOAD. *EXEC, 'DELETE 
or "RENAME failed, because the 
specified file did not exist. 

An error occurred when writing a 
file with SAVE, 'SAVE, PRINT#, 
BPUT# or "SPOOL, e.g. because of 

insufficient memory, 

An attempt was made to exceed 
the maximum number of open 
files (7). 



BASIC memory usage 

BBC BASIC allocates as much RAM as possible for its use on entry, 
up to a maximum of about 40 Kbytes for user programs, variables 
and stack. If less memory than this is available the value of PAGE 
will be raised accordingly. At least 2 Kbytes of memory ^w, be left 
free for new files. Note that the user must not ra.se HIMEM above 
its initial value or lower PAGE below its initial value; any attempt to 
do so will most probably crash the machine. 

It may also be possible to crash the machine by injudicious use of 
BBC BASIC'S equivalent of the POKE command (?n = x). Also, almost 
any attempt to use the assembler built into BBC BASIC will crash the 
machine. If you do any of these things ^n the only way to c_pjrect 
matters may be to perform a hard reset by holding down L— JL-J 
and & when switching the machine on. This will lose all data and 
documents stored in the machines memory. It would, therefore, be 
advisable to avoid using any of these features unless you are 
absolutely sure you know the effect they may have. 



178 



Z80 assembler " & 

Unlike the Acorn computers that are based on the 6502 processor, 
the Notepad is based on the Z80 processor. Consequently, the 
assembler built into the BASIC recognises Z80 mnemonics rather 
*han the 6502 variety. Assembly language programming is such an 
advanced subject that there is no way it can be covered in this 
manual. We would warn people not familiar with machine code 
programming to avoid attempting to use the assembler feature as 
it will almost certainly lead to a machine crash and subsequent loss 
of data. 



. ; ''"*,:'■ .T snt 'c 



iAVQA 

"t'ccnfct-l e^lt no fcv-^.^ciqu? toll 



-IK" 



179 



BASIC Keywords ^ 

The following is a list of all the BBC BASIC keywords. Those not 
supported on the Notepad are noted. Differences in operation of 
some of the commands have been explained in a previous section, 
This list is not intended to be a complete reference of the language^ 
There are many good books available on the subject of 
programming in BASIC and many of these talk specifically about 
the BBC version of the language. This list may be useful for those 
who already know how to program or for those inquisitve beginners 
who would like to experiment. 

ABS 

var = ABS (number) 

Sets var equal to the absolute value of number. Negative numbers 
are converted to positive. Positive numbers are untouched. 

ACS 

var = ACS(numbeO 

Sets var equal to the arc-cosine of the number. The result is in 

radians (which may be converted to degrees using the DEG 
function). 

ADVAL 

Not supported on the Notepad 

AND 

var = number AND number 

Sets var equal to the logical bitwise AND of the two numeric 

arguments. 

ASC 

var= ASC (st ring) 

Sets var equal to the ASCH value of the first character of the given 
string. 

ASN 

var = ASN(number) 

Sets var equal to the Arc Sine of the argument. Result is in radians. 



180 



ATN 

var = ATN( number) 

Sets var equal to the Arc Tangent of The gfveii hurfibbr. The result 
is in radians and may be converted to degrees using the DEG 
function, 

AUTO ■'"' : "- : 

AUTO start, step 

Starts generating automatic line numbers at line start and goes up 
by step. If start and step aren't given it starts at 10 and goes up in 
steps of 10. 

BGET 

var = BGET#n umber 

Sets var equal to the next character from the file that has been 
opened as number. The file can also be "COM:" for the serial port. 

BPUT 

BPUT#numtoer, value 

Writes the value to a file that has been opened as number. The file 
could also be the serial port "COM:" or the parallel port (LPT:). 

CALL 

CALL address, parameters 

Calls a machine code subroutine, Not for the faint hearted. 

CHAIN 

CHAIN string 

Loads and then continues on to run the program stored in the file 
whose name is given in string. 

CHR$ 

var= CHR$(number) 

Sets a string variable equal to the character whose ASCII code 
number is number. 



m 



CLEAR :U* 

CLEAR 

This resets all dynamic variables to the unused condition. The only 
variables left intact are the static variabies A% to Z% and @%. 

CLG 

CLG 

Clears the graphics screen to 'white'. 

CLOSE 

CLOSE#number 

Closes the file identified by number, .-, 

CLS 
CLS 

Clears text screen to all spaces. 

COLOUR 
COLOR 

Not supported on the Notepad •-.?■■ 

COS 

var = CO$(number) 

Sets var equal to the Cosine of the angle numberwhich is specified 
in radians. The RAD function may be used to convert an angle in 
degrees to radians. 

COUNT 

var= COUNT 

Sets var equal to the number of characters sent to the display since 

the last new line. 

DATA 

DATA constant constant, constant... 

Used to include constant data within a program which may be 
used by means of the READ command which will read it into 

variabies. 



182 



DEF ■ \ -r 

DEF PROCnome 
DEF FNname 

Used to begin the definition of a named procedure or function. The 
following example may give a taste of how this works: 

10 FROCtestC Hello World") 

20 PRINT FH_Average{3,9,14) 

30 END 

40 

100 DEF EROCtest<stringS) 

110 PRINT string$ 

120 ENDPROC 

130 : 

200 DEF FNAverage<nl, n2, n3> 

210 =(nl+n2+n3)/3 

DEG 

var = DEG( number) 

Sets var equal to the number converted from radians to degrees. 
in radians a complete circle is equal to 2*PI while in degrees a 
complete circle is 360 degrees so DEG just divides by 2*PI and 
multiplies by 360 (which is the same as divide by PI and multiply by 
180). 

DELETE 

DELETE start, finish 

Deletes a range of lines from a program. DELETE 10,100 would 
remove all lines between 10 and 100 (inclusive). To delete a single 
line it is easier just to type the line number on its own. 

DIM 

DIM var, size 

Reserves space for an array of Items. For example DIM A(5) would 
reserve space for 6 items A(0). A(l). A(2)...A(5) 

DIV 

var = number DiV number 

Sets var equal to the integer restft after dividing the first number by 
the second. The remainder is dfecarded. The function MOD can be 
used to get the remainder. 



183 



DRAW ^ 

DRAWx,y 

Draws a line in "lit" pixels between the current graphics cursor 
position and (x,y). x is 0..479 and y is 0..63 

ELSE 

IF condition THEN .... ELSE .... ... 

Used to provide an alternative seauence of commands if the 
condition in an IF statement fails. 

END 

END 

Marks the point where you would like the program to stop running 

and return to the BASIC prompt (>). END is not necessary as a 
program will stop once it has executed the highest line number but 
END makes things tidy and can be used to END the program early. 
It also is used to separate the main program from the procedure 
and function definitions and other subroutines. 

ENDPROC 

ENDPROC 

Marks the end of a procedure definition. 
ENVELOPE 

Not supported on the Notepad 

EOF 

var = EOF#number 

Sets var equal to TRUE (-1) if the file identified by number Is at Hs 
end. 

EOR 

var = number EOR number 

Sets var equal to the logical bitwise exclusive OR of the two 
numbers. 



184 



ERL 

var = ERL 



'TSU 



Sets var equal to the line number of the last line that caused an 
error. 

ERR . .. 

var - ERR 

Sets var equal to the number of the last error code. The possible 
codes are: 



21 -ve root 

22 Log range 

23 Accuracy lost 

24 Exp range 

26 No such variable 

27 Missing ) 

28 Bad HEX 

29 No such FN/PROC 

30 Bad call 

31 Arguments 

32 No FOR 

33 Can't match FOR 

34 FOR variable 
36 No TO 

38 No GOSUB 

39 ON syntax 

40 ON range 



41 No such line 

42 Out of DATA 

43 No REPEAT 
45 Missing # 



I Out of range 

4 Mistake 

5 Missing , 

6 Type mismatch 

7 No FN 

9 Missing " 

10 Bad DIM 

II DIM space 

12 Not LOCAL 

13 No PROC 

14 Array 

15 Subscript 

16 Syntax error 

17 Escape 

1 8 Division by zero 

19 String too long 

20 Too big 

ERROR 

DN ERROR GOTO 
ON ERROR OFF 

Jsed to trap errors. When an ON ERROR GOTO command is used 
subsequent errors cause program control to go to the line identified 
n the GOTO part of the command. ERR and ERL can be inspected 
•o see what caused the error and if it can be corrected. 

EVAL 

var = EVAL(BASIC expression in a string) 

This very powerful command passes the string to the BASIC 

expression handler and then sets var equal to the result. A simple 4 
ine program will turn BASIC into a scientific calculator: 



185 



10 REPEAT 

20 INPUT "Enter command : " e$ 

30 PRINT EVAL e$ 

40 UNTIL FALSE ■■' ,':•■"■* ■■ V ■-' 

When RUN this might give the following: 

Enter command : SI)ilB&D.(45) 1 

0.707106781 

Enter command : DE£iMHiSQR12111 

54.7356103 ■"'* ' '■ " 

Enter command : TTMF.5 ■ > ■ 

Thu.19 Mar 1992,00:27:42 

EXP 

var = EXP(numbef) 

Sets var equal to the natural logarithm base (e=2.71828183) raised 

to the power of number. The inverse of this function is provided by 
LN. 

EXT 

var = EXT#number 

Sets var equal to the total length of the file identified by number. 

FALSE 

var = FALSE 

FALSE is a fixed variable defined as 0. As BASIC uses the value to 
mean FALSE in conditional tests such as IF and UNTIL you can use 

FALSE in these situations. For example, 

REPEAT 

PRINT "Hello" 

UNTIL FALSE 

will repeat forever (until Stop is pressed). 

FN 

var = FN name 
DEF FN name 

Used in both defining and using a named function, See DEF for 
more details. 



186 



FOfT ->•■■■*•■ ■■•■■■ .--■- v.i ■ -; uov^ 

FOR var=$tart number TO finish number STEP step value 

Used to start a repetitive loop for a fixed number of iterations, var 
will start at the value start number and then, each time a 

corresponding NEXT instruction is executed var will be increased by 
step value (or just 1) until it reaches (or exceeds) finish number. 

GCOL 

Not supported on the Notepad 

GET 

var = GET 

Sets var equal to the ASCII value of the next key pressed, Waits for 
a key to be pressed before returning. 

GET$ 

var$ = GU$ 

Sets the string variable var$ equal equal to the next character key 
pressed, It waits for a key press before returning. 

GOSUB 

GOSUB line 

A jump is made to the section of program starting at line. When the 
next RETURN command is executed control returns to the statement 
after the GOSUB command. 

GOTO 

GOTO line 

Control is transferred to the line identified in the GOTO command. 
To make programs easy to read the use of excessive GOTO 
commands should be avoided. It is far better to change the flow 
of a program using the FOR.. .NEXT, REPEAT... UNTIL, DEF PROC and 
GOSUB structures. 

H1MEM 

HIMEM = number 
var= HIMEM 

Can be used either to set a new high address for the top of BASIC'S 
program memory or to find out what it is currently set to, It is unwise 

to change this unless you are sure you know what you are doing 



187 



as you may crash the machine leading to the heed to completely 
reset it and lose all your documents, it is OK to reduce HI MEM but 
do not increase it above its initial value. 

IF 

IF condition THEN 

Used to conditionally execute statements. The condition is tested 
and if it results in a TRUE (-1) value the statements after THEN are 

executed. 

INKEY 

var = INKEY(tfme) 

Sets var equal to the ASCII value of the next key pressed. Unlike GET 
it only waits for the length of time given by time in centiseconds. if 
no key is pressed it returns -1. 

INKEY$ 

var$ = INKEY$(f/me) 

Waits for time l/100ths of a second for a key to be pressed and 
returns the character in var$. If no key is pushed in time it sets var$ 
to the null (empty) string. 

INPUT 

INPUT "prompt texf. var 

Stops and displays the prompt text and then sets var equal to the 
users response, var can also be a string variable to allow the user 
to enter text as well as numbers. 

INPUT LINE 

INPUT LINE var$ 

Allows the user to type a string of text including commas, quotes 
and leading spaces and assigns this to var$. 

INPUT# 

INPUT#number, var 

Inputs variable var from the file identified by number. 



188 



INSTR -"!> 

var = INSTR(sfr/ng, sfr/ng to f/nd, number) 

The first named sfr/ng is searched to see if it contains the string to 
find and if so var is set to the position in the string where it occurs. 
The search can be started part way into the string by giving a 
number. 

INT 

var = INT(number) 

Converts a real number to a lower integer. 

LEFT$ 

var$ = LE FT $(string$, number) 

Takes the number of leftmost characters from strings and assigns 
them to var$. 

LEN 

var = LEN(sfr<ng$) 

Sets var equal to the number of characters in the given string. 

LET 

LET var = value 

LET assigns a va/ue to a variable (either number or string), in fact 
LET is optional and need not be used. So 

LET X => X + 3 

and 

X = X + 3 

are exactly equivalent, 

LINE 

NPUTUNE 

See INPUT LINE. . • ■ ■ 



189 



UST 

LIST number, number 

Lists a program. If a single number is given then only that line is 
shown. If both numbers are given then ali lines between the two 

are shown. 

USTO 

LISTO number 

Like LIST but the number affects how the listing is formatted. Valid 
numbers are to 7. LISTO 7 gives the easiest to follow listing, While 
a program is listed you can press &3 to pause the listing. Press it 

again to stop. 

LN 

var = LN(number) 

Sets var equal to the natural logarithm of the number, Natural logs 
are to the base e (=2.71828183). The inverse of LN is EXP. 

LOAD 

LOAD prog_name 

The prog_name (in quotes or contained in string variable) is the 
name of a document that contains a program to load. 

LOCAL 

LOCAL var 

Specifies a variable that is only local within a procedure or function 
declaration. The value is lost (undefined) outside of the proc/fn. 

LOG 

var = LOG( number) 

Sets var equal to the base 10 logarithm of number. There is no 
inverse function of LOG as such because the equivalent is to use 
10 ^number (ie 10 raised to the power of a number). 

LOMEM 

LOMEM = var 
var = LOMEM 

May be used to read and set the point in memory where dynamic 
data structures will be placed, it would be unwise to change this 



190 



unless you are absolutely certain that you know what youQife 

doing. 

MID$ 

var$ = MID$(sfr/ng$, start, length) 

Sets var$ equal to a string of characters taken from string$ starting 

at position start for length characters. 

MOD 

var = number MOD number 

Divides the first number by the second and sets var equal to the 

remainder. See also DIV which sets var equal to the integer result 
of dividing one number by another. 

MODE 

Not supported on the Notepad 

MOVE 

MOVE x.y 

Moves the graphic cursor position to (x,y) where x is 0. .479 'and y is 
0..63 

NEW 
NEW 

Clears the current program from memory. If you use this 
accidentally you can immediately use OLD to recover it but OLD 
will no longer function once you start to enter new program lines 
or set new variables. 

NEXT 

NEXT var 

Used to mark the end of a FOR loop and cause a jump back to the 
statement after FOR until the loop variable has reached its upper 
limit. The var name can be used to make sure a jump is made back 

to the correct FOR command. 

NOT 

var = NOT number 

Sets var equal to the bit by bit binary inversion of number. 



191 



OLD 

OLD 

Used to recover a program Immediately after the accidental use 

of NEW. 

ON 

ON var GOTO line, line... 
ON var GO SUB line, line... 

Can be used to goto or gosub a number of different lines 
depending on the value of var. 

OPENIN 

var=OPENlN(sfr/ng) 

The document /file whose name is given by string is opened for input 
(reading) and a file number is returned in var. This may be used in 
the various file reading commands such as BGET# and INPUT*. If the 
filename given is "COM:" then input will be read from the serial port. 

OPENOUT 

var = OPENOUT(sfring) 

The document/file whose name is given by string is opened for 
output (writing) and a file number is returned in var. This may be 
used in the various file writing commands such as BPUT#. If the 
filename given is "COM:" then output will go to the serial port. If the 
name is "LPT:" then the output will be to the parallel printer port. 

OPENUP 

var = OPEN l)P(string) 

Has the combined effect of OPENIN and OPENOUT, The device or 

file is opened for reading and writing. Can be used with files and 
the serial port "COM:" 

OR 

var = number OR number 

Sets var equal to the result of the logical bitwise OR of the two 

number. 



192 



OSCLI ' ' wi: ''' '•'■'' -' ;-■ """!f™r:i ?ffok"C-UT-.' .-,1;.':*- **<js** 

OSCU(sfring) 

The string is passed to the operating system to be executed. This 
can be one of the star commands such as "CAT. That is, 
OSCU("*CAT"). 

PAGE 

PAGE = var 
var = PAGE 

PAGE can be used to read or set the starting address of the current 
program area. It would be extremely unwise to change this value 
unless you are totally certain you know what you are doing. 

PI 

var = PI 

Sets var equal to the value of n 3.14159. the ratio of a circles 

circumference to its diameter. 

PLOT 
PLOTx,y 

Turns the pixel at (x,y) on. x is 0..479 and y is 0..63 

POINT 

var = POINT (x,y) 

Sets var equal to the current state of the pixel at point <x,y). x i 0..479 
and y is 0..63 

POS 

var = POS 

Sets var equal to the current horizontal position of the text cursor 
on the screen. 

PRINT 
PRINT var 

Prints the contents of a variable or variables and fixed text on the 
screen. The line of items following PRINT is passed to BASIC'S 
expression evaluator before output is produced. A tilde character 
'-" can be used before numeric items that should print in 
hexadecimal. Commas in the print list cause output to start at the 



193 



next tab stop. Semicolons mean the Items follow on immediately 
adjacent. A single apostrophe forces printing to start on a new line. 

Print format can be controlled by setting the variable @% before 
printing but there are too many options to describe here. The 
functions TAB(x.y) and SPC(number) can be used in a print 
statement to either position the cursor at location (x,y) or at a fixed 
number of spaces from the current position. 

PROC 

PROCname 

Used to invoke a named procedure that is defined using DEF PROC. 

PTR 

PTR#number = var 
var = PTR#number 

Allows the random access pointer of file number to be read or set, 

PUT 

PUT port, var 

Outputs a value to an I/O port address. It would be very unwise 
indeed to experiment with this command as you will almost 

certainly crash the Notepad necessitating a reset which will lose all 
stored data. 

RAD 

var = RAD( number) 

Sets var equal to the value of number converted from degrees to 
radians. 

READ 

READ var 

Reads data from a DATA statement and assigns it to var. 

REM 

REM comment 

Allows comments to be added to programs. Anything following 
REM is consiaered a remark and will be ignored, It is good practice 
to include comments in programs so that at a later date you will 

understand what a particularly complicated line really does! It can 



194 



also be used to temporarily disable a command while testingfiff 

program 

RENUMBER 

RENUMBER start, step 

Renumbers a program starting at line 10 and going up in steps of 
10. If start and step are given then numbering will begin at start and 
go up in units of step. 

nua 
REPEAT nufl 

REPEAT 

Used to begin a loop that ends with the command UNTIL. 

REPORT 

REPORT 

This prints the error message associated with the last error that 
occurred and is usually used in an ON ERROR GOTO trap to print 
an error message when your program determines that the error 
which has occurred is not one that it can cope with. 

RESTORE 

RESTORE line •-.■... 

When using READ to read data from DATA statements, RESTORE can 
be used to set the reading pointer back to a specified line so that 
data can be re-read. 

RETURN 

RETURN '" ■ ■."•■; «■■" ' " : ' ■■="* of 

Used at the end of a section of program that has been jumped to 
by the GOSUB command. Control returns to the statement after 
GOSUB. 

RIGHT$ 

var$ = RlGHT$(sfring$, number) 

Sets va/$ equal to the string of characters taken from the rightmost 

end of strings and of length number. 



195 



RND :• '■■■ "- '-'■■ *■>■■*■**■ 

var= RND( number) 

Sets var equal to a random number between 1 and number. If 
number is not given then the var is between 1 an &FFFFFFFF. If the 
given number is negative then the random number generator is set 
to a value based on that number and that number is returned in 
var. 

RUN 

RUN 

Starts running the program currently held In memory. 

SAVE 

SAVE prog_name 

The current program in memory Is saved to a document called 
prog_name (this may be either a name in quotes or a string variable 
that contains a name to use). It is very important to SAVE a program 
you are working on before switching away from BASIC (or typing 
"QUID as the program is not automatically saved. 

SGN 

var = SGN (number) 

Sets var equal to -1 if the number is negative or If it Is positive. 

SIN 

var = SIN(number) 

Sets var equal to the Sine of the given angle which must be 
specified in radians. The RAD function can be used to change an 

angle in degrees into radians before using the SIN function. 

SOUND 

SOUND channel, volume, pitch, duration 

Makes a sound on the Notepad's speaker, The Notepad has two 
sound channels so channel must be either 1 or 2. The volume is not 
variable so the volume parameter is ignored. The pitch specifies the 
note to be played. A value of 100 is middle C. Although each step 
of the pitch parameter should change the pitch by a quarter 
semitone, the Notepad can only play notes in steps of a semitone 
so thee «s no point using values that are not a multiple of four, The 
d&otton a given in twentieths of a second. So, for example: 



196 



SOCND 1, 0, 13«, 20 .;*' 

Will play the A above middle C on channel 1 for 1 second 
(20/20ths). 

To play a two note chord, use a SOUND command with a duration 
of -1 to start the first note on channel 1 and then use a second 
SOUND command to play the other note "on top" on channel 2. 
Sounds can be made to stop playing by using another SOUND 
command with a duration of 0. 

SPC 

PRINT SPC(number) 
INPUT SPC(number) 

When used in either a PRINT or INPUT command it prints number 
spaces before any following text. 

SQR 

var = SQR(number) 

Sets var equal to the square root of number. 

STEP 

FOR var=start TO finish STEP step 

Allows a FOR.. NEXT variable to be increased (or decreased) In steps 
other than one. 

STOP 
STOP 

Just like END it stops a program running but prints a message to say 

where the program stopped. Liberal use of STOP commands can 
help when developing a program to trace the flow of execution. 

STR$ 

var$ = STR$ (number) 

Sets a string to be equal to a number in the same format that It 
would be printed in. If a tilde is included between the $ and open 
parenthesis the number will be converted to hexadecimal. 

STRINGS 

var$ = STRING$(number, string) 

Sets var$ equal to number repetitions of string, 



197 



TAB 

PRINT TAB(x.y) 
INPUT TAB(x,y) 

Used to arrange for the printed output of a PRINT or INPUT 
command to appear on the screen at location (x,y) 

TAN 

var = TAN(number) 

Sets var equal to the Tangent of the angle number. This must be 
specified in radians. To use degrees use the RAD function to convert 
the value from degrees to radians before using TAN. 

THEN 

IF condition THEN 

Introduces the statements in an IF command that should be 
executed if the condition is met. The use of THEN is optional but 
makes programs easier to read. 

TIME 

TIME = var 
var = TIME 

A variable that can be set and read to measure elapsed time. It 
increases once every 1 /100th of a second. Typically this is used to 
measure a fixed amount of elapsed time, For example: 

TIME = 

REPEAT 

UNTIL TIME > 1000 <'."■'.- ■■ 

would pause for approximately 10 seconds. 

TIME$ 

vor$= TIMES 

TIMES = var$ -*«*" • ■ 

Sets var$ equal to a string which contains the current date and time 
in a fixed format. MID$ can be used to pick selected fields from this. 
It is also possible to set the date and time stored in the Notepad by 
setting the TIMES variable. 



198 



to w<rv 

FOR var = start TO finish 

Used in a FOR statement to drVtete the starting vcriue from the end 
value of the loop variable, 

TRACE 

TRACE ON 
TRACE OFF 
TRACE number 

The command TRACE ON will cause BASIC to print the number of 
each line it executes in square brackets to allow the flow of 
execution to be followed, Tracing can be turned off using the 
command TRACE OFF. If the command TRACE number is used then 
only line numbers below number will be printed. By placing all 
subroutines at high numbered lines and the main program in the 
low numbered lines you can arrange to only show tracing of the 
main part of the program, 

TRUE 
var= TRUE 

Sets var to be equal to the value -1 that BASIC understands as TRUE 
in IF and UNTIL expressions 

UNTIL 

UNTIL condition 

Ends a loop started by the REPEAT command. As long as the 
condition is not met a jump will be made back to the statement 
after REPEAT. 

USR 

var = USR(number) 

Calls a machine code routine at address number and returns the 
value of the HL and HL' registers to the named variable. Not a 
command for the uninitiated in the black art of machine code 
programming. 

VAL 

var = S/ALCstring) 

Converts as much of a string that can be interpreted as a number 
into a numeric value and assigns it to var. 



199 



VDU 

VDU number 

Sends the number value to the terminal emulator built into BASIC. 
Some values have a special significance as explained elsewhere in 
this manual. 

VPOS 

var = VPOS 

Sets var equal to the vertical position of the text cursor. 

WIDTH 

WIDTH number 

Sets the width of print zones. A value of zero will stop it taking any 

action. 



200 



Appendix 1 



t\ 



Table of characters available in the Notepad 

The following table shows the characters that can be used in the 

Notepad, The character numbers can be used when writing BASIC 
programs. 



00 

o 
o 
f-. 

$ 

00 
<M 

»— ( 
r-4 

s 

^■1 


fc 


ill 


+1 


Al 


VI 


c^ 


-> 


■i- 


n 


o 


• 


• 


T 


c 


« 


1 




w 


a 


CO. 


U 


K 


w 


D 


=t 


H 


e 


® 


a 


to 


8 


■©. 


w 


c 


Q 


H 


h 


1= 


J 


J 


L. 


t 


+ 


+ 


n 


L 


■ 


1 




™ 


1 


ci 


J 


H 


r- 


J_ 


1 


+ 


JL 


± 


j 


t 


J 

1 


L 

r 


JL 


II 


JL 
ir 


Hi 


PQ 


__ 


gg 


sss 


— 


T 


TT 


X 


P 


IT 


TT 


= 


fr 


=n 


=1 


11 


r 


<: 


Nrt 


« 


*o 


-a 


C 


•z 


ml 


CI 


•>5 


L 


r 


^1 


_^r 


— • 


* 


» 


c* 


« 


tt 


«e 


<o 


to 


<0 


a 


O 


!>• 


o 


a 


Si 


«* 


o 


<-> 


^ 


00 


o 


o 


MJ 


<rt 


:« 


^tJ 


«s 1 o> • <t> 


:U 


*v 


:- 


<-- 


/>■* 


i< 


•< 


HBBSHE™ 










i '°j:"2 
















r^. 


a 


cr 


l-l 


in 


M 


3 > 

| 


*; « 


>* 


N 


~ 


— 


l-H 


J 


a 


NO 




« 


X! 


u 


T3 


4) <+* 
| 


bfl 


J5 


.- 


— 


.* 


- 


6 


c 


o 


in 


a. 


a 


ffS 


W 


H 


=>!> 


£ 


X 


>< 


N 


— 


-- 


— 


< 


1 


4 


® 


< 


CO 


U 


Q 


u'fc 


o 


X 


H- 1 


►— » 


M 


J 


2 


2 


O 


co 


o 


i-H 


CM 


f> 


rf IO ^O'N 


00 


ON 


■• 


... 


V 


ii 


A 


p" 


CVI 




— 


= 


=*fc 


W : $£ 


<* 




- 


~ 


# 


+ 


- 


■ 


■ 


"~- 


^H 


A 


T 


•«-> 


« 


0-'oO»| | 


+-M 


«- 


— ► 


t 


i 


J 


* 


4 


► 


© 




© 


e 


► 


♦ * : * 


• 


a 


o 


■ 


"D 


O 


^-» 


n 


# 


s 

a 

1 


9 


^H 


M 


CO 


•<r 


m 


•O 


t>. 


00 


Cjs 


< 
i 


i 


U 


Q 


w 


fc 


u 

Q 




O »-<«>*«*} ^ >0 



201 



Appendix 2 aeqqA 

Summary of Word processor Editing Commands 

Block, Copy ("B+QT3 



puncTionl . 
|Punction| + [7 „.] 
(Function] + |J^] 



Block, Delete 

Block, Move 

Block, Mark 

Centre line CrTZJ + UJ 

Clear block markers B + P3 

Control codes, insert B + PJ (i b u c e I p q s or t) 

Control codes, show/hide l™3 + ^ 

Convert to upper case B + E^ 

Convert to lower case Bl + S-J _ 

Copy default ruler B3 + 1^-1 
(first active ruler) 

Copy previous ruler but one B] + CJ 

Delete all text In document 1 ^""'°^ + B 

Delete one word back BD + S 

Delete one word forwards l£ — I + S 

Delete line Bl +SJ 

Delete to start of line B + B 

Delete to end of line B + E"3 

Find text ' E^UED 

Find next occurrence Bj + isJ 



+ ls 



Find previous occurrence i 

Find and Replace E^3 + S 



202 



Finish what you are doing " - : 

Go to specified Line, 
Page or Column 

Hyphen, non-break 

Hyphen, soft 

Insert date 

Insert line (with Insert mode off) 

Insert on/off 

Insert page break 

Insert special character 

Insert time 

Justification on/off 

Line drawing on/off 

Macro, insert 

Markers, insert or go to ptoce 

Move back 6 lines 

Move forward 6 lines 

Move block 

Move to start of "marked block 

Move to end of marked block 

Move to end of line 

Move to start of line 

Move to start of next line 

Move to end of document 

Move to start of document 



■■■i ovoM 



Q + LED (Ln, Pn, Cn) 



B + BQ 




B + S 






Q + Q 






B + Q 






E3 + fO 






E3 + Q 






press G3 


highlight symbol 


then 


E-3 + dJ 


■ ::-<}■!/- 


'■ nrM 


Q + 






E3 + I* 


I + E3 




E3 + (user defined key] 




E3E) 


(0 to 9 ? L R ] or 


I) 


E3 + GD 






E3+CB 


3 




l^unctionl i l~ 




•—■•-J 




E3S 


O 




S + L^) 






B + S 






1° l+R 






Q + O 






B + O 







203 



Move to lost position 


B + E3 


■: -■'■\y rtein? 


Move to next tab 


1* l + ls= 1 




Move one page back 


E3 + 53 




Move one page forward 


e + ED 




Move back one paragraph 


B + Q 




Move forward one paragraph 


B+a 




Move back one word 


£ — I + E3 




Move forward one word 


h i + r^i 




Multiple markers, insert 


BE) O 




Multiple markers, go to 


f-H 1* 1 ( l;J 


forwards/ EJ 



back) 

Non-break hyphen EE3 + G3- 

Non-break space E3 + B L__ 

Ruler line. Show B + DQ 

Ruler line, switch to default £E3 + D 

Soft hyphen S + £D 

Space, Insert EE3 + ( 

Spaces show/hide E3 + Q Q 

Spell check document (fU~) (T] 

Spell check from cursor EE3 + O 

Spell check word B + GZI 

Status line, on/off fjjssg £3 

Swap (transpose) EE3 + £J 
two characters 

Tabs and returns show/hide F i + D D 

Undo last block/line S + ED 

delete operation 



204 



Word count E3 + CO 

Word wrap on/off B Q 



itslioSij? 



£15 



205 






Appendix 3 

Display of Macro definitions 

When the display macros command is used you will see the various ; 
B keys that have been assigned. Any characters in the above 
table will appear normally but in addition to this you may see 
numbers contained with a characters. There is a number for each 
possible function in the word processor. The following is a list of 
those numbers and what they mean together with the key 
combination that is used to achieve the function. 

Number Keys used Description 

Set or go to marker 
Swap adjacent characters 
Centre line 

Default ruler 
Delete to end of line 

Format paragraph 

Go to column, line or page 

Insert line 

Justify on/off 

Clear block markers ■ 

Go to last position 

Move block 

Non break character 

Spell check single word 

Insert previous ruler line 
Spell check from cursor 
Undelete block 
. Various view options 
Word wrap on/ off 
Enter control code 
Set block marker 

Move to start of document 

Convert to lower case 



206 



512 


trjcj 


513 


R 4 1 


515 


BBa 




BEJ 


516 


EB 


517 


BO 




BB 


518 


bo 


519 


EHED 


521 


ea 


522 


BO 


523 


BN1 


524 


BQ 


525 


bo 




t-HQ 


526 


BO 


529 


BO 




BO 


530 


EB 


531 


BO 


533 


BO 


534 


ED 


535 


BO 


536 


ffi 


538 


bo _ 




(F^.^i^|["< ) 3 


539 


E=3U) 


540 


bth 



541 P?*— ' Move to end of document 

545 CTj Delete forwards 



639 fel Delete backwards 

722 h"HB Delete all text 

723 (£_ rjB Delete word backwards 

724 BS Delete to start of line 

727 Ey IGp Go to next marker 

728 fczjr 1 ^JEJ Go to previous marker 

729 e~](p Previous find 

730 i^K Back one paragraph 

73 -J ciJ ulJ Forwards one paragraph 

732 £3 53 back one page 

733 ct3GlV| Forward one page 
736 f£3B Find next 



737 EEJtSj Insert on/off 

739 b:-F 3 Soft hyphen 

740 L=Jl^_J Move to next tab 

741 EZJS Delete word right 

742 E3SJ Delete line 

743 Er3tO Convert to upper case 

7 44 h n "'°"lB Delete block 
746 |F7nc T^)[Q Copy b|Qck 

-47 Si 1 Insert space 

48 £ )G=L) Move to start of next line 



"52 Lr_J Cursor up 

"53 CD Cursor down 

"54 g Cursor left 

"55 pa Cursor right 

"56 tL_JQ Scroll up one line 

"57 GlTJCT] Scroll down one line 

"58 p^J^g Move word left 

"59 EZJ=§ Move word right 



62 P'^DS Move to start of line 

S3 pfxSj Move to end of tine 

^ 4 H Back out one level 

~4 Ip^pfiJ Record macro 

~6 EB rJ IE3 Line drawing mode on/off 

38 BEJ Current date 

: 9 0Q Current time 

•4 g3QV| insert bold code 

•5 jllljtlJFD Insert condensed code 

;■ 7 (5r)[lJ(^J Insert elite code 



207 



841 


gCH 


843 


gr)[U^J 


848 


&EX3 


849 


eQQ 


851 


sm 


852 


gDD 


853 


&1DE3 


915 


SfjiD 


919 


grlQ 


922 


^HEXG 


931 


SOD 


933 


gm 


938 


@U3 


939 


SOS 


940 


SOS 


983 


grO 


984 


[3*7] 


985 


H:IrlP"1 


987 


t^J 


990 


MM 


991 


sue 



Insert italic code 

Insert enlarged code 

Insert proportional code 

Insert quality code 

Insert subscript code 

Insert superscript code 

insert underline code 

Choose character 

Print block 

Remove word from user dictionary 

Display user dictionary 

Count words in block 

Non break hyphen 

Non break space 

Insert multiple marker 

Display macros 

Create header 

Create footer 

Print to screen 

Insert page break 

Format text 



208 



Licence Agreement 



This software is supplied strictly subject to the Licence terms and 
conditions printed below. If you do agree to comply with all the 
terms of the Licence, then by loading, entering, utilising, running, 
listing or otherwise manipulating the software in any way, you are 
deemed to accept the full terms of the conditions of the Licence. 

1.4 Software Licence Agreement 

Amstrad Software licence agreement for ail software described in 
this manual, 

VERY IMPORTANT 

Amstrad provides the Software and the Program described in this 
manual incorporated in or embedded on magnetic disk, tape, 
hard disk or other media and the descriptive material related to 
that Program in this manual or in other documents strictly subject 
to the terms and conditions of this Licence Agreement. 

By breaking the Seal on the package in which the Software is 
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otherwise manipulating the magnetic disk, tape, hard disk, other 
media. Program, manual or other documentation other than for the 
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If you do not agree to be bound by any one or more of the terms 
and conditions of this Licence Agreement you must destroy the 
Software Package, manual and documents and erase the Program 
and Software from the disk, tape, hard disk or other media on or in 
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Definitions 

1 . Machine means the single microcomputer, or PC on which you 
use the Software. Multiple CPU systems require additional 
licences. 

2. Software means the set of programs, disks, tapes, 

documentation and related materials described in and 
supplied with this manual. 



209 



.A 

3 Program is a part of the Software and means the instructions ;- 
codes, messages or other information contained in, or 
embedded on magnetic disk, tape, hard disk or any other 
media, or any part of it. 

4. Amstrad means AMSTRAD PLC, 169 Kings Road, Brentwood, 
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5 Licensee means the purchaser if purchased for own use or, if 
purchased for company use, means that company and its 
employees. 

Licence 

Amstrad grants a non-exclusive Software Licence to Licensee to: 

1 . Use the supplied Program on a single Machine. 

2 where copy protection is not incorporated, copy the Program 

into any machine-readable or printed form for backup or 
modification purposes in support of Licensee's use of the 
Program on a single Machine. Licensee may make only one (1) 
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documentation and other printed materials is prohibited. 
Disassembly, reverse compilation and reverse engineering of 
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Terms 

1 . Software supplied by Amstrad is copyright protected. Licensee 
agrees to uphold these copyrights. 

2. This Licence Agreement enters into effect at the time you open 
or break the seal on the Software package, or enter, use, run, 
list, copy or otherwise manipulate the Program, and is effective 
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3 Licensee may terminate this Licence Agreement at any time by 
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derived by Licensee from the Licence will terminate 
automatically if the terms of this Agreement are violated and 
Amstrad may demand the return of the Software immediately. 
Any such termination shall be without prejudice to any accrued 
rights of the parties. 



210 



4/ : J This Licence is personal to Licensee' and may not be as^^ed- 
to any other person, persons or company. 

5. The right to lend, hire, rent, sell, or otherwise transfer the 
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Software from unauthorised use, reproduction or distribution. 

limited Warranty 

THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED AND LICENSED ON AN AS IS BASIS. 
LICENSEE ASSUMES RESPONSIBILITY FOR SELECTION OF A PROGRAM 
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AMSTRAD DOES NOT WARRANT THAT THE FUNCTIONS CONTAINED IN 

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AMSTRAD DOES NOT RECOMMEND USE OF THE SOFTWARE FOR LIFE 
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However, Amstrad gives a limited warranty that the disks, tapes or 
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and supplied by Amstrad, to be free from defects in materials and 
workmanship under normal use for a period of ninety (90) days from 



211 



the date of receipt by, or of delivery to. Licensee as evidenced by 
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Amstrad will also, AT ITS DISCRETION, by modification or alteration 
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Limitations 

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The Licensee shall indemnify Amstrad in respect of any liability 
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Governing Law 

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U.S. Government restricted rights in respect of Microsoft programs 

The Program and documentation are provided with RESTRICTED 
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of the DOD FAR. 

Contractor/manufacturer is Microsoft Corporation/ 160 11 NE 36th 
Way/Box 9701 /Redmond, WA 98073-9717. 



212 



General 

If any of the above provisions thereof are invalid or unlawful under 
any applicabfe Law they are to that extent only deemed omitted. 

SOME STATES DO NOT ALLOW EXCLUSION OF IMPLIED WARRANTIES 
AND CONDITIONS OR LIMITATIONS OF LIABILITY. IN SUCH 
CIRCUMSTANCES THE ABOVE EXCLUSIONS AND LIMITATIONS MAY 
NOT APPLY TO LICENSEE. THIS WARRANTY GIVES THE LICENSEE 
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No US technology. Program or Software may be exported or sold 
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US Department of Commerce, Washington DC 20230. 

AMSTRAD PLC 

1 169 Kings Road 
' BRENTWOOD 

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CM14 4EF 

©1992 Amstrad pic. All rights reserved. 



m wy *-e ■ ■ 



213 



Troubleshooting 



!rv«irt*~5 



If you do have difficulties when using your Notepad always refer to 

this User Guide first to try to find the solution. 



Problems 


Possible Solutions 


1 switch on but nothing shows 
on the screen. 


- Check that batteries are 
installed. 

- Adjust the contrast control. 

- If using batteries disconnect 
AC Adaptor from Notepad, 

- If using mains power check 
AC adaptor is connected 
properly. 


The Notepad switches itself off 
when I'm not looking. 


- this is a normal feature, 
designed to help conserve 
your batteries, you can adjust 
the time delay before power 
off 


1 have set a password but 
forgotten it, what do 1 do? 


- Refer to the relevant section 
in the user guide. 


1 think my Notepad is running 
out of memory, what do 1 do? 


- Delete some of your old 

documents 


Is there anything 1 can do to 
increase the memory? 


- Standard JEIDA/PCMCIA 
Memory Cards will expand the 
Memory by up to 1MB 


Sometimes when I'm typing a 

document, it disappears and 
other things appear on the 
screen. 


- Press F"J to return you to the 
document. You have 
accidentally Invoked a 
command, possibly by 
pressing I 11 """' ") instead of 


The calculator does not work 
in the same way as my pocket 
calculator 


- There is no single standard 
for how a calculator should 
work, some pocket calculators 
do work like this. 



214 



Problems 


Possible Solutions 


The clocks have changed, but 
how do l change the time 
and date on my Notepad? 


- You can change the time 
and date in the System 
Settings menu. See System 
Settings. 


1 can't print £ signs 


- Make sure your printer and 
Notepad are set to use the 
IBM character set before you 
print. 



If you have changed the System and configure settings but wish to 
revert to the original default settings you can do so using "Soft 
Reset". Before switching off finish what you are doing by pressing 
B (otherwise your current work in document or address book will 
be lost) then hold down F-"^ and 3 together and switch the 
Notepad on, you will hear a "beep" if the reset is successful, 

Hotline Support 

If, on unpacking your Notepad, it will not function at all It should be 

returned immediately to your dealer for replacement. 

As the Notepad is a very sophisticated item, you may find you need 
personal assistance when learning how to use it that a user guide 
cannot provide; our Hotline Support can provide further tuition, Dial 

the Hotline Support on 0891 808181.* 

From September to the end of January: 



Monday - Friday 

Saturday 

Sunday 



9.00 am - 8.00 pm 
10.00 am- 7.00pm 
1 1 .00 am - 5.00 pm 



All other times of year: 

Monday - Friday 9.00 am - 5.00 pm 

"Because the hotline is an adaWonal tutorial service the calls are 
charged at the Premium Rate. At the time of printing the Premium 
Rates are 48 pence per minute at peak times and 36 pence off-peak. 



215 



The product described inlhis manual and products for use with It' 
are subject to continuous development and improvement. 

This manual is provided to you free of charge and is intended only 
to assist the reader in the use of the product and the information 
contained in this manual and literature provided with the product 
is given by AMSTRAD in good faith. 

AMSTRAD MAKES NO WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EITHER EXPRESS OR 
IMPLIED INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES 
OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND 
AMSTRAD ACCEPTS NO LIABILITY FOR ANY LOSS OR DAMAGE 
ARISING FROM THE USE OF ANY INFORMATION PROVIDED OR 
OMITTED. 

This manual may include technical inaccuracies or typographical 
errors. Changes are periodically made to the information 
contained herein; these changes will be incorporated in new 
editions of the publication. AMSTRAD may make improvements 
and/or changes in the product described in this publication at any 
time but does not undertake to notify customers of these changes. 

The products referred to herein are not designed and should not 
be used for, or in connection with, life critical functions or any 

activity in which an error or a fault may result in physical damage 
or injury to person(s) and AMSTRAD does not authorise such use. 

You must carefully read these instructions and all other literature 
provided with the product. 

EXCLUSIONS OF CONSEQUENTIAL LOSS 

IN ANY EVENT, AMSTRAD ACCEPTS NO LIABILITY FOR ANY 
CONSEQUENTIAL LOSS OR DAMAGE ARISING FROM THE USE OF THIS 
MANUAL OR PRODUCTS USED WITH IT OR ANY INFORMATION 
PROVIDED IN OR OMITTED FROM THIS MANUAL INCLUDING, BUT NOT 
LIMITED TO, ECONOMIC OR FINANCIAL LOSS, DAMAGE TO 
PERIPHERAL EQUIPMENT OR PRODUCTS, LOSS OF USE, PRODUCTIVITY 
OR TIME. 

Nothing in this document is intended to exclude or restrict any of 
the consumer's rights where to do so would be illegal. 



216 



All correspondence relating to the product or this manual' stibtrtd 
be addressed to: 

Department NCI 00 

Amstrad pic 
PO Box 1831 
BRENTWOOD 
CM14 4ER 

©1992, Amstrad pic 
All rights reserved 

Neither the whole nor any part of the information contained herein, 
nor the products described in this manual may be adapted or 
reproduced in any material form except with the prior written 
approval of AMSTRAD pic 

Spellchecker by Proximity 

The Proximity/Collins Linguibase 

©1992 AMSTRAD pic 
©1992 All rights reserved 
Proximity Technology, Inc 

BASIC written by Richard Russell 

All other software designed by Alan Sugar, Cliff Lawson and Arnor 
Ltd and written by Arnor Ltd. 

Written by Alan Sugar, Cliff Lawson and Sue Maybee 
Typeset by Janet Kiddier, 

Published by AMSTRAD pic 

Acorn and Archimedes are trademarks of Acorn Computers Ltd 

Amiga is a registered trademark of Commodore- Amiga Inc 

Atari and ST are trademarks of Atari Corp 

Centronics is a registered trademark of Centronics Corp 

Epson is a trademark of Epson America Inc 

IBM and IBM PC is a registered trademark of International Business 

Machines Corporation 

LaserJet is a trademark of Hewlett Packard Corporation 

Protext is a trademark of Arnor Ltd 

Proximity and Linguibase are registered trademarks of Proximity. 

Technology inc 



217 



.:_„.' LD 180 (6/88) 

New product guarantee 

Congratulations on purchasing a fine AMSTRAD product. To mark our confidence in 
your new AMSTRAD product, which has been fully tested and inspected, it comes 
with this guarantee; the details of which are set out below. This guarantee Is In 
addition to, and does not reduce, your minimum statutory rights. 

Terms of guarantee 

1. Your AMSTRAD product, when properly maintained, serviced, used and cared for, 
should give years of excellent performance. You must carefully read the user 
instruction manual and literature supplied with the product as Amstrad pic does 
not accept responsibility for any damage or defect caused by misuse, abuse, 
neglect or incorrect operation. 

2. The guarantee is strictly limited as follows: 

(a) In the event of any manufacturing defect in materials or workmanship in any 
part of your AMSTRAD product (except consumable items such as tapes, discs, 
films, etc.) becoming apparent within 12 months of the date of original 
purchase or hire purchase of your new AMSTRAD product, you must return it at 
your own risk and cost to the dealer from whom it was purchased, within the 
12 month guarantee period. 

(b)The dealer will repair or replace any defective part covered by this guarantee 
free of charge. 

(c)When the product Is repaired, you will be responsible for collecting it at your 
own risk and cost. 

3. If maintenance, service work or adjustments are required, ensure that it is 
performed by a qualified engineer to avoid damage that will not be covered by 
this guarantee. 

4. You must keep your original purchase receipt as proof of place, date and type 
of purchase. It must be produced when required. 

What this guarantee does not cover 

5. Amstrad pic will not compensate you under this guarantee for any loss or damage 
caused to any item or article used with your AMSTRAD product such as (but not 
limited to) discs, tapes, records or films. 

6. Amstrad pic will not pay financial compensation under this guarantee In the event 
of any defect in or delay in repair of your AMSTRAD product. Amstrad pic's sole 
responsibility is to ensure that any genuine under-guarantee repair is performed 
for you. 

Large and delicate items 

7. Customers owning large or delicate products which are not eastfy or safely 
transported are advised to purchase on-site service contracts from their dealers 
at point of sale. 

Please complete and return the Product Registration Card now to register your guarantee 



Index b 

A -******>. 

Accents 72,92,100 

Address Book 52, 75 

Address Book, Send/Receive 1 T3 

Alarm calls, setting 56 

Arnor 102 

Assembler prog ra m m i n g 179 

AV command 135, 145 

B 

BASIC 152 

Alphabetic list of command 180 

Clock program 165 

Differences between other versions 167 

Error numbers 185 

Example programs 160 

Immediate commands 153 

Memory usage 178 

Music program 161 

Operating system commands 173 

OS error messages 177 

PLOT parameters 170 

Plotting program 163 

Reaction program 160 

Short tutorial 153 

SOUND command 171 

Star commands 173 

Time functions 172 

VDU command 174 
Writing programs >_. . 153 

BBC BASIC 152 

block delete ? 77 

block, saving 77 

blocks, marking., moving and copying 76 

BM command 118 

Bold 78 

Bottom margin 85 

boxes, drawing 73 



Calculator 46,50,214 

Calendar 54 

capital letters 67 

capitals, change to 71 

Caps Lock 67 

CE command 122 

Centre 77 

centring " 

centring text ''* ■" 

CF command 136 

Character set 201 

Checksum/CRC, XModem 111 
clock, change to 12 hour 
CO command .-,.,. .... 
Codes on/off 

Columns 

Comments in documents 133 

Condensed 80 

Conditional printing 13 

Configure ?L 97 

Continuous printing 

Copy block gbnu; 

Copy Document «° 

counting words 

CP command 

CS command 

cursor, what is a 

CW command 13! 



62 

133 

74, 76, 78 

84 



137, 148 



122 
76 



49 

122 
133 
67 



Date, format *1 

date, insert into document 75, 92 

date, Setting 62 

decimal tabs " 

Del keys 69 

delete characters 68 

delete document 47 < 6 s 

Delete end • 7 & 

Delete line 70 

Delete start 70 



Delete text 70 

Delete Word 70 

DF command 136, 143 

Diary 54 

Dictionary, Upkeep User 95 

Display Macros 206 

DM command 133 

Document 82 

documents, maximum size 65 



EA command 123 

Editing, operations 81 

EF command 123 

EH command 124 

El command 136 

EL command - . 136 

Elite 80 

EM command 119 

EP command 125 



FF command 125 

File transfer. Simple 109 

File transfer, XModem 1 1 1 

Find 89, 91 

find address 52 

Find next 91 

Find previous 91 

FM command 119 

FO command 126 

Footers 82, 126 

Foreign characters 72, 92 

Format paragraph 206 

Formatting, stored commands 122 

FP command 127 



Go to command 83 



H 



HE command \*? 

Header margin ™ 

headers and footers *~ 

HM command 
Hotline advice 



Justification 



120 

215 



ID command I" 

IE command 
IF command 
IN command 

Indent tabs 

indented paragraphs 

insert a document 

insert address into document 

insert date into document 

Insert line 

Insert on/off 

insert time into document 2UJ ^ 

Invoice example ^° 

Italic ;! 

IU command lo/ 



137 

137, 148 

133 

88 

68, 85, 88 

76 

75 

203 

203 

70 



130 



103, 107 



La peat 

Large documents '*» 

last position, go to *04 

La y° ut ^ m 

Layout, stored commands ■\-nnm.<- no 

Left margin 

Legs, Notepad 

Lines, spacing 

lower case, change to *] 

LS command 



85 
67 
127 



127 



M t> 

macro, display 206 

macros, keyboard •..■>- . . 92 

Mail merge 1 16, 141 

Addition of variables 149 

Inputting data 145 

Invoices 150 

No data file 150 

Reading data 144 H 

Reading variables 143 

Simple ■" 141 

Splitting variables 147 

stored commands 135 

. Using Address Book 150 

Variables 138, 143, 146 

margins 85, 88 

Mark block 76 

mathematical symbol* 72 

MC command T ;■; 131 

memory *£r*£* 43,47,214 

memory cards , >$■'; 47, 64 

memory display ■■%&. . 61 

Memory, BASIC " ! '" : "; 178 

memory, calculator : 51 

memory, expanOing the ;^ 47 

Micro spacing " 131 

Move block 76 

moving around a document 69 

MS command 131 

multiple place markers 80, 204 



N 



name, document 63 

NC command 128 

New Page after printing 128 

NP command 128 

Null Modem Cable 106 

Number of copies 128 



-*--i* 



■;, iJLSfr 



* *. 



OC command ,32 

OF command 12a 

OH command 1 2 ' 

OM command 12 £ 

OP command 12 ' 

Output printer codes 132 



Print to screen 



129 



PA command 

Page Back ?04 

page break 69,84,129 

Page forward 204 

Page layout 85 

page numbering °£ ,ou 

POper S ' Ze il ft* A* 

paragraph indent JJ- 85 < 8tJ 

password protection 

password, changing your 

password, forgetting 

PE command 

PL command 

place markers *® 

PN command 

PO command 

power off time delay 61 



59 

59 

60 

129 

120 



130 

130 



power off, automatic 

PP command 

preserving context 44 



44,214 
132 



144 



Printer, Codes ] 3 ? M 

Printer, Proportional printing 

Printer, Set up 

Printer, stored commands 2? 

printing 

printing bold 

printing italics 

Printing selected pages 

printing underlining 

Pretext 102- 107 



132 
99 



99 

79 

78 

123, 129-130 

79 



quick keys 


81 


quick-key alternatives to menus 


81 


Receive, Simple 


no 


Receive, XModem 


112 


Receiving Address Book 


113 


Remove codes 


74 


remove word from User Dictionary 


96 


Replace 


89 


Reset 


60 


Reset, soft 


215 


returns, show on screen 


75 


Right align tab 


89,97 


Right Justification 


84, 130 


RJ command 


130 


RP command 


137 


RU command 


138, 145 


RV command 


138, 143 


SA command 


131 


saving a document 


63 


Secret 


46 


Secret Information 


58 


Send, Simple 


no 


Send, XModem 


in 


Sending Address Book 


113 


Serial, Baud rate 


108 


Cable 


105 


Data bits 


108 


Parity 


108 


Stop bits * 


108 


Terminal 


108 


short cuts 


45 


Simple transfers 


109 


SK command 


138 


SM command 


121 


Software licence agreement 


209 



72 

95 

95 

134 

134 

84 

46 



spaces, show on screen 75 

Special characters 

Spell text 

Spell word wvis}> ' 

ST command 

Standard paragraphs 

Status 

sticky shift 

Stored commands «^ ' ,A 

Descriptions 

Mail merge 

Miscellaneous 

Page Formatting 

Page Layout 

Printer 

summary 
style 

Subscript 
Superscript 
SV command 

swapping characters '■ 

symbols '/: 

System settings 61 



tab key ' *• 

tabs, using •' 

Template " "*J 

time and date, change m, tu 

46, 55 
75 
121 
104 
109 
103 
104 
103 



116 

135 

133 

122 

118 

131 

116 

79 

80 

80 

138, 146 



time zones 

time, insert into document 

TM command 

Transfer, Local 

Method 

Parallel 

Remote 

Serial 

Software connection 106 

Type 106 

Transferring documents 102 

Troubleshooting 214 

Typing, how not to '■' - 68 



u 



UN command 139 

undelete 70 

Underline 79 

User Dictionary Upkeep 95 



w 



WC command 139 

WF command 139 

WM command 140 

Word count 97, 205 

Word wrap 70, 84 

WT command 134,144 



XModem transfers 111 



ZM command 122